Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

2008 Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-38918-7_273


Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno [3,4-d] imidazol-4-valeric acid


Biotin can be synthesized by the human colon flora. The question to which extent this production contributes to covering the host-organism’s requirements is, however, subject to discussion. In most foods of animal origin as well as in cereals, biotin prevails in the protein (= enzyme)-bound form as ε-N-biotinyl-l-lysine (= biocytin). Brewer’s yeast, liver, soya beans, and peanuts number among the biotin rich foods [1].

The chemical structure of biotin (hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno [3,4-d] imidazol-4-valeric acid) is shown in Fig. 1. Of the eight stereoisomers, only d-(+)-biotin occurs naturally and is biologically active.
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  1. 1.
    Biesalski HK, Grimm P (2000) Pocket Atlas of Nutrition. Thieme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rucker RB, Suttie JW, McCormick DB et al (2001)Handbook of vitamins, 3rd edn (revised and expanded). Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, BaselGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Novartis Pharma GmbHNurembergGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Biological Chemistry and NutritionUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany