Advertisement

14 Chimpanzee Hunting Behavior

  • Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher
Reference work entry

Abstract

The pursuit, capture and consumption of small- and medium-sized vertebrates, appears to be typical of all chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations, although large variation exists. Red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus sp.) appear to be the preferred prey but intensity and frequency of hunting varies from month to month and between populations. Hunting is a predominately male activity and is typically opportunistic, although there is some evidence of searching for prey. The degree of cooperation during hunting, as well as prey selection, varies between East and West African populations and may be related to the way the kill is divided: in West Africa, hunters often collaborate, with kills tending to be shared according to participation, whereas in East Africa, the kill is typically divided tactically by the male in possession of the carcass, trading meat with females in return for sex or with other males to strengthen alliances, and cooperation in hunting is more limited. The adaptive function of chimpanzee hunting is not well understood, although it appears that it may be both a means to acquire a nutritionally valuable commodity that can then be traded and as a means for males to display their prowess and reliability to one another.

Keywords

Hunting Season Colobus Monkey Chimpanzee Population African Chimpanzee Blue Duiker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aiello LC, Wheeler P (1995) The expensive tissue hypothesis: The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36: 199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alp R, Kitchener AC (1993) Carnivory in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, in Sierra Leone. Mammalia 57: 273–274Google Scholar
  3. Basabose K, Yamagiwa J (1997) Predation on mammals by chimpanzees in the montane forest of Kahuzi, Zaire. Primates 38: 45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boesch C (1994) Hunting strategies of Gombe and Taï chimpanzees. In: Wrangham RW, McGrew WC, de Waal FBM, Heltne PG (eds) Chimpanzee cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, pp 77–92Google Scholar
  5. Boesch C, Boesch H (1989) Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park. Am J Phys Anthropol 78: 547–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boesch C, Boesch-Achermann H (2000) The chimpanzees of the Taï forest. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Boesch C, Uehara S, Ihobe H (2002) Variations in chimpanzee-red colobus interactions. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boinski S, Timm RM (1985) Predation by squirrel monkeys and double-toothed kites on tent-making bats. Am J Primatol 9: 121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Busse CD (1977) Chimpanzee predation as a possible factor in the evolution of red colobus monkey social organization. Evolution 31: 907–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Busse CD (1978) Do chimpanzees hunt cooperatively? Am Nat 112: 767–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Waal FBM (1989) Food sharing and reciprocal obligations among chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 18: 433–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixson AF (1998) Primate sexuality: Comparative studies of the prosimians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2002) Hunting and scavenging by early humans: The state of the debate. J World Prehistory 16: 1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foley R (1997) Humans before humanity. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Fruth B, Hohmann G (2002) How bonobos handle hunts and harvests: Why share food? In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goodall J (1963) Feeding behaviour of wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report. In: Symp Zool Soc Lond 10: 39–47Google Scholar
  17. Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behaviour. Belknap Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodall J, Bandora A, Bergmann E, Busse C, Matama H, Mpongo E, Pierce A, Riss D (1979) Intercommunity interactions in the chimpanzee population of the gombe national park. In: Hamburg DA, McCown ER (eds) The great apes. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp 13–53Google Scholar
  19. Hasegawa T, Hiraiwa M, Nishida T, Takasaki H (1983) New evidence on scavenging behavior in wild chimpanzees. Curr Anthropol 24: 231–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hawkes K (1991) Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals. Ethol Sociobiol 12: 29–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hawkes K, Bird RB (2002) Showing off, handicap signaling, and the evolution of men's work. Evol Anthropol 11: 58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Jones NGB (2001) Hadza meat sharing. Evol Hum Behav 22: 113–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hill K (1982) Hunting and human evolution. J Hum Evol 11: 521–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hohmann G, Fruth B (1993) Field observations on meat sharing among bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatol 60: 225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hunt KD, McGrew WC (2002) Chimpanzees in the dry habitats of Assirik, Senegal and Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. In: Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Isaac G (1978) Food sharing behavior of proto-human hominids. Sci Am 238: 90–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kano T, Mulavwa M (1984) Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. In: The pygmy chimpanzee: Evolutionary biology and behavior. Plenum Press, New York, pp 233–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaplan H, Hill K (1985) Food sharing among ache foragers: Tests of explanatory hypotheses. Curr Anthropol 26: 223–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kawabe M (1966) One observed case of hunting behavior among wild chimpanzees living in the savanna woodland of western Tanzania. Primates 7: 393–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kingdon J (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press, London, p 464Google Scholar
  31. Kortlandt A (1972) New perspectives on ape and human evolution. Stichting voor Psychobiologie, Amsterdam, p 100Google Scholar
  32. Kuroda S, Suzuki S, Nishihara T (1996) Preliminary report on predatory behavior and meat sharing in tschego chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Ndoki forest, northern Congo. Primates 37: 253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee RB (1979) The !Kung san: Men, women and work in a foraging society. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. McGrew WC (1983) Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Why cross-cultural variation? J Ethol 1: 46–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGrew WC (1992) Chimpanzee material culture: Implications for human evolution. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Milton K (1999) A hypothesis to explain the role of meat-eating in human evolution. Evol Anthropol 8: 11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitani JC, Watts DP (1999) Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol 109: 439–454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitani JC, Watts DP (2001) Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat? Anim Behav 61: 915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mitani JC, Watts DP, Lwanga JS (2002) Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee party size and composition. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 102–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morris K, Goodall J (1977) Competition for meat between chimpanzees and baboons of the Gombe National Park. Folia Primatol 28: 109–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Muller MN (2002) Agonistic relations among Kanyawara chimpanzees. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 112–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Muller MN, Mpongo E, Stanford CB, Boehm C (1995) A note on scavenging by wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 65: 43–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Newton-Fisher N (2004) Data resolution and analysis technique in observational studies of ranging patterns. Folia Primatol 75(S1): 312–313Google Scholar
  44. Newton-Fisher NE (1999a) The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Afr J Ecol 37: 344–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Newton-Fisher NE (1999b) Infant killers of Budongo. Folia Primatol 70: 167–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Newton-Fisher NE, Notman H, Reynolds V (2002) Hunting of mammalian prey by Budongo forest chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 73: 281–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nishida T, Hosaka K (1996) Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale mountains, Tanzania. In: McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T (eds) Great ape societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 114–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nishida T, Uehara S, Nyundo R (1979) Predatory behaviour among wild chimpanzees of the Mahale mountains. Primates 20: 43831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nishida T, Hasegawa T, Hayaki H, Takahata Y, Uehara S (1992) Meat-sharing as a coalition strategy by an alpha male chimpanzee? In: Nishida T, McGrew W, Marler P, Pickford M, deWaal F (eds) Topics in primatology. Vol. 1 Human origins. Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, pp 159–174Google Scholar
  50. Noe R, Hammerstein P (1995) Biological markets. Trends Ecol Evol 10: 336–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rose LM (1997) Vertebrate predation and food-sharing in Cebus and Pan. Int J Primatol 18: 727–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rose LM, Perry S, Panger MA, Jack K, Manson JH, Gros-Louis J, Mackinnon KC, Vogel E (2003) Interspecific interactions between Cebus capucinus and other species: Data from three Costa Rican sites. Int J Primatol 24: 759–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sabater Pi J, Bermejo M, Illera G, Vea JJ (1993) Behavior of bonobos (Pan paniscus) following their capture of monkeys in Zaire. Int J Primatol 4: 797–804Google Scholar
  54. Souza LL, Ferrari SF, Pina A (1997) Feeding behaviour and predation of a bat by Saimiri sciureus in a semi-natural Amazonian environment. Folia Primatol 68: 194–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stanford CB (1996) The hunting ecology of wild chimpanzees: Implications for the evolutionary ecology of pliocene hominids. Am Anthropol 98: 96–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stanford CB (1998) Chimpanzee and red colobus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  57. Stanford CB (2001) The ape's gift: Meat-eating, meat-sharing, and human evolution. In: de Waal FBM (ed) Tree of origin: What primate behavior can tell us about human social evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, pp 95–117Google Scholar
  58. Stanford CB, Wallis J, Matama H, Goodall J (1994) Patterns of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus monkeys in Gombe National Park, 1982–1991. Am J Phys Anthropol 94: 213–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Stevens JR (2004) The selfish nature of generosity: Harassment and food sharing in primates. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 271: 451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stevens JR, Gilby IC (2004) A conceptual, framework for non kin food sharing: Timing and currency of benefits. Anim Behav 67: 603–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Strum SC (1987) Almost human: A journey into the world of baboons. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Sugiyama Y, Koman J (1987) A preliminary list of chimpanzees’ alimentation at Bossou, Guinea. Primates 28: 133–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Takahata Y, Hasegawa T, Nishida T (1984) Chimpanzee predation in the Mahale mountains from August 1979 to May 1982. Int J Primatol 5: 213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Takenoshita Y (1996) Chimpanzee research in the Ndoki forest. Pan Afr News 3: 7–8Google Scholar
  65. Teleki G (1973) The predatory behaviour of chimpanzees. Bucknell University Press, LewisburgGoogle Scholar
  66. Tooby J, DeVore I (1987) The reconstruction of hominid behavioral evolution through strategic modelling. In: Kinzey W (ed) The evolution of human behavior: Primate models. State University Press of New York, Albany, pp 183–238Google Scholar
  67. Tutin CEG, Fernandez M (1993) Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Am J Primatol 30: 195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Uehara S (1997) Predation on mammals by the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Primates 38: 193–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Uehara S, Nishida T, Hamai M, Hasegawa T, Hayaki H, Huffman MA, Kawanaka K, Kobayashi S, Mitani JC, Takahata Y, Takasaki H, Tsukahara T (1992) Characteristics of predation by the chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. In: Nishida T, McGrew W, Marler P, Pickford M, deWaal F (eds) Topics in primatology. Vol. 1 Human origins. Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, pp 141–158Google Scholar
  70. van Lawick-Goodall J (1968) The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Anim Behav Monogr 1: 165–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wallis J, Lemmon WB (1986) Social behavior and genital swelling in pregnant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Primatol 10: 171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Washburn S, Lancaster CS (1968) The evolution of hunting. In: Lee R, DeVore I (eds) Man the hunter. Aldine, Chicago, pp 293–303Google Scholar
  73. Watts DP, Mitani JC (2001) Boundary patrols and intergroup encounters in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 138: 299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Watts DP, Mitani JC (2002) Hunting and meat sharing by chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 244–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Williams JM, Liu HY, Pusey AE (2002) Costs and benefits of grouping for female chimpanzees at Gombe. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 192–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wrangham RW (1975) The behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge UniversityGoogle Scholar
  77. Wrangham RW (1977) Feeding behaviour of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In: Clutton-Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology. Academic Press, London, pp 504–538Google Scholar
  78. Wrangham RW, van Zinnicq Bergmann Riss E (1990) Rates of predation on mammals by Gombe chimpanzees, 1972–1975. Primates 31: 157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wrangham RW, Chapman CA, Clark-Arcadi AP, Isabirye-Basuta G (1996) Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the costs of great apes groups. In: McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T (eds) Great ape societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations