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10 Primate Life Histories

  • Elke Zimmermann
  • Ute Radespiel
Reference work entry

Abstract

The life history of any species is determined by traits that characterize its developmental and reproductive rate as well as the reproductive effort spent over life time. In this chapter, we will present an overview of our current knowledge on the diversity of primate life history. We will explore potential links between life history and major biological factors, which are suggested as a partial explanation for the existing interspecific variations in life history. Furthermore, we will outline general principles and current hypotheses on the evolution of primate life history. Our review will show that extant primates ranging from nocturnal ancestral primates to apes provide an important biological substrate to illuminate evolutionary roots and selective forces that shaped our own life history.

Keywords

Life History Trait Litter Size Brain Size Mouse Lemur Gestation Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Hartmut Rothe and Winfried Henke for the invitation to contribute to this volume and all of the editors for helpful comments. Thanks go furthermore to Elisabeth Engelke for editorial help and Rüdiger Brüning for technical support in preparing the figures.

Appendix Primate database for life history traits

Family

Genus

Species

BM

AFR

GL

IBI

LS

NNM

WA

WM

L

 

Cheirogaleidae

Allocebus

trichotis

83

         

Cheirogaleidae

Cheirogaleus

major

356

 

71

 

22

∼18

70

 

15.013

 

Cheirogaleidae

Cheirogaleus

medius

139

1.19

62

12

2

12

61

 

9.02

 

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

berthae

30

         

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

griseorufus

63

         

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

murinus

63

0.676

60

37

2

5

40

33229

15.52

 

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

myoxinus

49

         

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

ravelobensis

56

16

       

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

rufus

42

15

575

35

25

45

   

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

sambiranensis

44

         

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

tavaratra

61

         

Cheirogaleidae

Mirza

coquereli

297

1

87

12

2

14

  

15.31

 

Cheirogaleidae

Phaner

furcifer

328

       

12.013

 

Daubentoniidae

Daubentonia

madagascariensis

2,490

3.5

164

20

1

102

170

1,535

23.319

 
   

2,572

 

169

  

147

365

   

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

dorsalis

∼500

         
   

79827

   

127

     

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

edwardsi

934

         
   

95427

   

127

     

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

leucopus

594

         

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

mustelinus

∼777

1.83

135

 

11

∼27

75

   
   

89527

   

127

     

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

ruficaudatus

779

1.63

    

120

   

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

septentrionalis

∼750

         

Lemuridae

Eulemur

albocollaris

2,150

         

Lemuridae

Eulemur

coronatus

1,080

 

125

 

1

48

  

18.413

 
   

1,177

    

∼70

    

Lemuridae

Eulemur

fulvus

2,206

2.16

120

24

1

68

135

 

37.013

 
   

2,250

2.66

   

76

183

   

Lemuridae

Eulemur

macaco

1,760

1.66

129

12

1

50

135

 

27.12

 
   

1,793

2.18

   

74

    

Lemuridae

Eulemur

mongoz

1,481

2.5

129

 

1

57

152

 

24.313

 
   

1,560

2.52

   

60

    

Lemuridae

Eulemur

rubriventer

1,940

 

123

  

82

    

Lemuridae

Hapalemur

aureus

1,390

  

12

      

Lemuridae

Hapalemur

griseus

670

2.38

140

11

1

∼45

120

 

12.12

 
   

790

2.92

    

154

   

Lemuridae

Hapalemur

griseus

          
  

alaotrensis

∼1,450

         

Lemuridae

Hapalemur

simus

1,300

         

Lemuridae

Lemur

catta

2,210

2.01

135

14

1

65

105

 

27.12

 
   

2,290

2.25

   

85

179

   

Lemuridae

Varecia

variegata

3,100

1.42

102

12

2

78

89

2,893

28.013

 
   

3,520

1.92

175

  

∼87

90

   
   

3,600

2.72

   

100

146

   

Indriidae

Avahi

laniger

875

2.58

 

12

11

 

150

   
   

1,320

         

Indriidae

Avahi

occidentalis

777

         

Indriidae

Propithecus

tattersalli

3,500

4.5

   

98

153

   

Indriidae

Propithecus

verreauxi

2,950

3.5

140

121

11

103

180

 

18.21

 
   

3,620

         

Indriidae

Propithecus

coquereli

3,244

4.2

141

12

1

103

182

   
   

4,280

         

Indriidae

Propithecus

diadema

6,260

4

178

25

11

∼135

183

   
    

4.51

    

363

   

Indriidae

Indri

indri

6,250

 

159

30

11

 

363

   
   

6,840

     

365

   

Lorisidae

Arctocebus

aureus

∼210

         

Lorisidae

Arctocebus

calabarensis

254

1.12

135

6

11

32

105

160

12.213

 
   

306

         

Lorisidae

Loris

lydekkerianus

269

         

Lorisidae

Loris

malabaricus

193

  

1

      

Lorisidae

Loris

tardigradus

255

1.5

166

6

11

10

170

139

16.013

 
        

∼11

    

Lorisidae

Nycticebus

bengalensis

95024

224

18724

1224

124

3824

18024

52524

15.024

 

Lorisidae

Nycticebus

coucang

626

2.11

193

12

1

51

180

520

26.513

 

Lorisidae

Nycticebus

javanicus

798

         

Lorisidae

Nycticebus

menagensis

511

         

Lorisidae

Nycticebus

pygmaeus

∼307

 

185

 

2

20

    

Lorisidae

Perodicticus

edwardsi

1,210

         

Lorisidae

Perodicticus

potto

836

2.03

195

12

1

33

150

 

26.013

 

Galagidae

Euoticus

elegantulus

283

 

1352

       

Galagidae

Euoticus

pallidus

∼300

         

Galagidae

Galago

alleni

262

0.83

135

1217

11

24

  

8.01

 
   

26024

 

13024

 

124

3024

12024

 

10.024

 

Galagidae

Galago

matschiei

212

         

Galagidae

Galago

moholi

173

0.71

123

6

1

12

84

95

16.51

 
   

179

1

   

15

100

   

Galagidae

Galago

senegalensis

195

1.4

142

6

11

19

98

150

16.02

 
   

20022

1.0222

14122

522

122

1922

8422

  

Galagidae

Galagoides

demidoff

60

0.97

110

12

2

8

  

14.02

 
   

6023

 

11423

   

6023

   

Galagidae

Galagoides

thomasi

130

         
   

10023

     

4223

   

Galagidae

Galagoides

zanzibaricus

132

1

126

6

11

∼14

    

Galagidae

Otolemur

crassicaudatus

1,110

2.17

135

12

2

∼43

135

500

18.813

 

Galagidae

Otolemur

garnettii

721

1.58

132

7

1

49

  

15.013

 

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

bancanus

109

2.52

178

8

1

∼24

79

 

12.01

 

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

dianae

107

   

1

     

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

pumilis

    

1

     

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

spectrum

108

1.42

 

5

1

∼23

68

 

12.02

 

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

syrichta

120

 

180

 

1

262

82

 

15.013

 

Cebidae

Aotus

azarai

1,230

  

12

1

 

231

   

Cebidae

Aotus

lemurinus

874

 

133

12

1

98

75

   

Cebidae

Aotus

nancymaae

780

         

Cebidae

Aotus

nigriceps

1,040

         

Cebidae

Aotus

trivirgatus

724

2.38

133

91

11

94

75

360

20.01

 
   

736

2.42

    

179

   

Cebidae

Aotus

vociferans

698

         

Cebidae

Cebus

albifrons

2,067

4.02

155

18

11

228

269

1,0003

44.01

 

Cebidae

Cebus

apella

2,201

5.5

154

22

1

197

261

1,000

45.113

 
   

2,520

5.78

   

232

264

   
         

416

   

Cebidae

Cebus

capucinus

2,540

4

162

26

1

∼230

510

1,350

54.813

 

Cebidae

Cebus

olivaceus

2,520

6

 

261

11

 

730

   

Cebidae

Saimiri

boliviensis

711

         

Cebidae

Saimiri

oerstedii

680

   

12

     

Cebidae

Saimiri

sciureus

662

2.5

170

9

1

106

168

418

27.013

 
   

699

    

146

183

   
         

240

   

Cebidae

Saimiri

ustus

799

         

Cebidae

Saimiri

vanzolinii

650

         

Callitrichidae

Callimico

goeldii

355

1.32

151

9

1

48

65

215

17.913

 
   

∼582

 

155

  

53

70

   

Callitrichidae

Cebuella

pygmaea

79

1.88

137

61

2

12

90

70

18.013

 
   

122

    

14

    

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

aurita

429

         

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

flaviceps

∼406

   

2

     

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

geoffroyi

∼359

         

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

jacchus

287

1.37

148

61

2

27

60

128

16.713

 
   

381

1.5

   

30

77

   
         

90

   

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

kuhlii

∼375

         

Callitrichidae

Callithrix

penicillata

307

   

2

     

Callitrichidae

Leontopithecus

caissara

572

         

Callitrichidae

Leontopithecus

chrysomelas

535

         

Callitrichidae

Leontopithecus

rosalia

559

2.38

129

6

2

50

90

165

22.013

 
   

598

2.42

   

62

    

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

bicolor

430

         

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

fuscicollis

350

2.33

148

12

2

39

90

 

24.513

 

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

geoffroyi

502

  

81

2

48

    

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

imperator

475

    

47

  

20.213

 

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

inustus

803 ?

         

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

labiatus

520

 

145

10

2

38

    

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

leucopus

490

    

44

    

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

midas

558

2

 

7

2

40

70

 

13.02

 

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

mystax

539

1.2516

516

1116

2

47

    

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

nigricollis

350

2.33

  

1

44

77

175

15.213

 
   

484

     

83

   

Callitrichidae

Saguinus

oedipus

404

1.89

168

71

2

42

50

130

23.013

 

Callitrichidae

Mico

argentatus

353

1.67

 

7

2

36

12012

 

16.813

 

Callitrichidae

Mico

emiliae

330

         

Callitrichidae

Mico

humeralifer

380

       

15.013

 

Callitrichidae

Mico

mauesi

398

         

Callitrichidae

Mico

nigriceps

390

   

2

     

Pitheciidae

Cacajao

calvus

2,880

3.615

180

 

115

 

638

 

22.313

 
   

3,600

         

Pitheciidae

Cacajao

melanocephalus

2,710

         

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

brunneus

805

         

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

cupreus

1,120

 

130

13

1

74

203

   

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

donacophilus

909

         

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

hoffmannsi

1,030

         

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

moloch

956

3

164

121

11

74

60

 

12.01

 

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

personatus

1,380

   

115

     

Pitheciidae

Callicebus

torquatus

1,210

418

 

1212

115

     

Pitheciidae

Chiropotes

albinasus

2,490

 

15215

     

11.713

 

Pitheciidae

Chiropotes

satanas

2,580

 

15215

     

15.013

 
   

3,100

         

Pitheciidae

Pithecia

aequatorialis

∼2,250

         

Pitheciidae

Pithecia

irrorata

2,070

         

Pitheciidae

Pithecia

monachus

2,110

    

120

  

24.613

 

Pitheciidae

Pithecia

pithecia

1,580

2.08

164

191

11

   

13.72

 

Atelidae

Alouatta

belzebul

5,520

         

Atelidae

Alouatta

caraya

4,330

3.71

187

 

11

262

325

   
   

4,882

         

Atelidae

Alouatta

palliata

4,020

3.58

186

20

1

320

325

1,100

13.02

 
   

5,350

3.99

    

495

   
   

5,824

     

630

   
   

6,600

         

Atelidae

Alouatta

pigra

6,430

    

∼480

    

Atelidae

Alouatta

seniculus

4,670

4.58

191

171

11

295

372

 

25.01

 
   

6,020

         

Atelidae

Ateles

belzebuth

7,850

         

Atelidae

Ateles

chamek

9,330

         

Atelidae

Ateles

fusciceps

9,160

4.86

226

271

11

 

486

 

24.013

 

Atelidae

Ateles

geoffroyi

7,290

5.62

225

37

1

426

750

2,000

48.013

 
   

7,669

6.39

229

  

∼512

821

   

Atelidae

Ateles

paniscus

8,440

5

230

24

1

425

760

3,790

33.01

 
   

8,554

    

480

810

   

Atelidae

Brachyteles

arachnoides

8,070

7.5

233

34

1

 

638

   
         

855

   

Atelidae

Lagothrix

lagothricha

5,585

5

223

24

1

432

315

 

30.013

 
   

7,020

7.58

225

  

447

507

   

Atelidae

Oreonax

flavicauda

∼10,000

         

Cercopithecidae

Allenopithecus

nigroviridis

3,180

    

242

    

Cercopithecidae

Miopithecus

talapoin

1,120

4.38

162

12

1

∼178

180

450

30.913

 
   

2,000

 

165

  

180

195

   

Cercopithecidae

Erythrocebus

patas

6,317

3

167

12

1

468

213

1,950

23.913

 
   

6,500

    

625

255

   

Cercopithecidae

Chlorocebus

aethiops

2,980

4.75

    

219

   
   

2,980

5

163

12

1

336

201

1,170

31.02

 
   

3,100

3.5

   

430

365

   

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

ascanius

2,920

5

172

521

11

∼371

1802

 

28.313

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

campbelli

2,200

39

 

129

  

365

   
   

2,700

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

cephus

2,805

5

170

 

11

339

3661

22.01

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

diana

3,900

5.33

 

12

1

460

365

 

37.313

 
   

4,533

5.42

   

479

    

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

erythrogaster

2,400

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

erythrotis

∼2,900

   

12

 

1802

   

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

hamlyni

3,360

       

27.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

lhoesti

3,450

  

161

11

     
   

4,700

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

mitis

3,930

5.72

1409

24

1

∼337

692

 

20.01

 
   

4,910

    

495

    

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

mona

2,500

   

12

282

  

22.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

neglectus

3,550

4.67

165

12

1

260

365

1,640

20.02

 
   

4,081

 

168

  

450

420

   

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

nictitans

4,216

49

170

 

12

406

    

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

petaurista

2,900

       

19.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

pogonias

2,900

5

170

 

1

339

  

20.01

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

preussi

∼4,500

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

sclateri

∼2,500

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

solatus

3,920

4.75

 

18

1

     

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecus

wolfi

2,870

    

∼435

    

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

arctoides

8,400

3.84

178

19

1

489

393

2,300

30.02

 

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

assamensis

6,900

         

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

cyclopis

4,940

 

162

15

1

398

206

   
   

6,200

    

402

    

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

fascicularis

3,574

3.9

160

13

1

326

330

1,700

37.118

 
   

3,590

 

167

  

375

420

   

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

fuscata

8,030

5.54

173

24

1

503

365

2,730

33.018

 
   

9,100

    

527

540

   

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

maura

6,050

5

1632

22

1

389

500

   
    

6.526

 

2926

      

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

mulatta

5,370

3

165

12

1

466

192

1,454

36.013

 
   

6,500

4.5

    

365

   
   

8,800

         

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

nemestrina

4,900

3.92

167

14

1

444

234

1,32020

26.32

 
   

5,571

 

171

  

473

365

   
   

6,500

         

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

nigra

4,600

5.44

170

18

1

457

  

18.02

 
   

5,470

5.5

   

∼461

    

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

ochreata

2,600

         

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

radiata

3,700

4

162

12

1

388

365

2,000

30.01

 
    

4.527

16627

       

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

silenus

5,000

4.92

180

17

1

407

365

 

38.01

 

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

sinica

3,200

51

 

181

11

   

30.01

 

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

sylvanus

8,280

4.75

165

22

1

450

210

2,420

22.01

 
   

∼11,000

         

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

thibetana

9,500

 

170

24

1

500

561

2,400

  
   

12,800

    

∼550

568

   

Cercopithecidae

Macaca

tonkeana

9,000

         

Cercopithecidae

Mandrillus

leucophaeus

8,450

5

173

151

11

722

  

28.62

 
   

∼12,500

         

Cercopithecidae

Mandrillus

sphinx

11,350

4

175

17

1

613

348

3,000

29.12

 
   

12,900

 

220

  

890

350

   

Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus

albigena

6,209

4.08

175

251

11

5003

365

2,170

32.71

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus

agilis

5,660

         

Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus

atys

6,200

3.141

1672

131

11

530

  

26.813

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus

galeritus

5,260

6.5

171

 

11

   

19.02

 

Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus

torquatus

5,500

4.67

171

131

11

   

27.01

 

Cercopithecidae

Lophocebus

albigena

6,020

 

186

33

1

500

210

2,20020

  

Cercopithecidae

Lophocebus

aterrimus

5,760

       

26.813

 

Cercopithecidae

Papio

anubis

11,700

4.5

180

25

1

915

584

3,8003

25.213

 
   

13,300

    

950

600

   
   

14,700

         

Cercopithecidae

Papio

cynocephalus

9,750

5.5

173

23

1

710

365

2,500

40.01

 
   

11,000

 

175

  

803

450

   
   

11,532

     

456

   
   

13,600

         

Cercopithecidae

Papio

hamadryas

9,900

6.1

170

24

1

695

561

3,100

37.513

 
   

10,404

    

1,000

    
   

11,400

         

Cercopithecidae

Papio

papio

12,100

 

187

141

12

604

  

40.01

 
   

16,166

         

Cercopithecidae

Papio

ursinus

14,773

3.67

187

29

1

600

  

45.01

 
   

14,800

    

850

    

Cercopithecidae

Theropithecus

gelada

11,427

4

170

24

1

465

540

3,900

28.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Procolobus

verus

4,200

   

12

     

Cercopithecidae

Procolobus

badius

7,421

4.08

 

251

11

 

522

   
   

8,210

     

790.4

   

Cercopithecidae

Colobus

angolensis

7,570

   

12

   

22.319

 

Cercopithecidae

Colobus

guereza

7,900

4.75

170

20

1

445

330

1,600

24.513

 
   

8,102

    

549

390

   
   

9,200

     

394

   

Cercopithecidae

Colobus

polykomos

7,662

8.5

170

22

1

400

215

1,240

30.513

 
   

8,300

    

∼600

219

   

Cercopithecidae

Colobus

satanas

7,420

 

1952

 

12

 

4802

   

Cercopithecidae

Colobus

vellerosus

6,900

         

Cercopithecidae

Semnopithecus

entellus

6,910

3.42

184

17

1

500

249

2,100

25.019

 
   

9,890

3.9

200

   

396

   
   

10,280

     

416

   
   

14,800

         

Cercopithecidae

Semnopithecus

vetulus

5,797

4

200

32

1

360

219

1,100

  
   

5,900

    

∼447

270

   

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

cristata

5,760

4

  

12

 

365

 

31.113

 

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

francoisi

7,300

4

   

457

394

   

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

geei

9,500

   

12

     

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

johnii

11,200

   

12

     

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

obscura

6,260

4

1502

 

12

341

365

 

25.013

 
   

6,530

    

4852

    

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

phayrei

6,300

 

165

15

1

 

305

   
   

10,500

         

Cercopithecidae

Trachypithecus

pileatus

9,860

     

4584

   

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

comata

6,710

         

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

frontata

5,670

         

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

hosei

5,630

         

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

melalophos

6,470

3.812

  

12

   

16.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

potenziani

6,400

   

12

     

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

rubicunda

6,170

   

12

     

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

senex

5,7971

3.812

1958

201

11

3603

2141

1,1003

23.013

 

Cercopithecidae

Presbytis

thomasi

6,690

         

Cercopithecidae

Nasalis

larvatus

9,593

4.5

166

18

1

450

210

2,000

21.013

 
         

281

   

Cercopithecidae

Simias

concolor

6,800

         

Cercopithecidae

Pygathrix

nemaeus

8,180

 

210

201

11

463

  

10.31

 

Cercopithecidae

Rhinopithecus

avunculus

8,000

         

Cercopithecidae

Rhinopithecus

bieti

9,960

    

427

    

Cercopithecidae

Rhinopithecus

roxellana

11,600

         

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

agilis

5,820

   

12

 

72412

  

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

concolor

5,749

712

202

 

12

 

72412

44.113

 
   

7,620

         

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

hoolock

6,880

5.9912

 

12

 

7002

   

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

klossii

5,920

9.0712

2102

4010

  

3302

   

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

lar

5,340

6.69

205

30

1

400

548

1,070

31.52

 
   

5,465

9.31

213

  

407

730

   

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

leucogenys

7,320

    

500

    

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

moloch

5,292

 

195

 

12

 

72412

  
   

6,250

         

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

muelleri

5,350

         

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

pileatus

5,440

       

36.013

 

Hylobatidae

Hylobates

syndactylus

10,568

5.18

232

50

1

513

639

3,50014

37.013

 
    

9

        

Pongidae

Pongo

pygmaeus

35,700

7

250

72

1

1,728

720

11,000

58.813

 
   

37,078

14.3

    

1,825

   

Pongidae

Pongo

abelii

35,600

5.411

 

11211

    

58.011

 

Pongidae

Gorilla

gorilla

71,000

4

260

47

1

1,996

900

19,8003

54.013

 
   

71,500

10.0

285

  

2,110

1,004

   
   

80,000

10.3

    

1,278

   
   

97,500

         

Pongidae

Pan

paniscus

33,200

13-1521

240

48

1

1,400

1,080

8,500

26.81

 

Pongidae

Pan

troglodytes

30,000

13

235

60

1

1,750

1,680

8,500

59.413

 
   

33,700

13.9

240

  

1,814

1,702

   
   

45,800

         

Hominidae

Homo

sapiens

42,200

14

267

36

1

2,900

730

10,980

120.613

 
   

45,800

15

270

  

3,334

930

   
   

73,200

         

For each currently recognized primate species, principal life history data are presented. One should note the large number of empty cells and the variation in some variables used in the literature. All values without superscript are from Kappeler and Pereira (2003). Other sources are listed below.

1Ross and Jones (1999).

2Harvey et al. (1987).

3Lee et al. (1991).

4Ross and MacLarnon (2000).

5Wrogemann et al. (2001).

6Radespiel U and Zimmermann E (unpublished data).

7Schmelting et al. (2000).

8Rudran (1973).

9Cords (1987).

10Tilson (1981).

11Wich et al. (2004).

12Chapman et al. (1990).

13Hakeem et al. (1996).

14Alvarez (2000).

15Robinson et al. (1987).

16Soini (1982).

17Pollock (1975).

18Bearder (1987).

19Ross (1988).

20Lee (1999).

21Kano (1992).

22Atramentowicz (1996).

23Nash and Zimmermann (2004).

24Kingdon (1997).

25Zimmermann (1989).

26Okamoto et al. (2000).

27Rao et al. (1998).

28Zimmermann and Randrianambinina (unpublished data).

29Zimmermann and Radespiel (unpublished data).

BM (Body mass) = mean body mass (g) of wild adult females, ∼ indicates mixed or unknown sex sample; AFR (Age at first reproduction) = mean age (years) of first female reproduction, GL (Gestation length) = mean gestation length (days), IBI (Interbirth interval) = mean interbirth interval (month), LS (Litter size) = modal litter size, NNM (Neonatal mass) = mean body mass (g) of neonate females, ∼ indicates mixed or unknown sex sample, WA (Weaning age) = mean age at weaning (days), WM (Weaning mass) = mean body mass (g) at weaning, L (Longevity) = maximal recorded life span in years.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elke Zimmermann
  • Ute Radespiel

There are no affiliations available

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