Reference Work Entry

Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics

pp 959-1042


  • Roger ArndtAffiliated withSaint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Email author 
  • , Damien KawakamiAffiliated withMechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota Email author 
  • , Martin WosnikAffiliated withAlden Research Laboratory Email author 
  • , Marc PerlinAffiliated withNaval Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Michigan Email author 
  • , David AdmiraalAffiliated withDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Email author 
  • , Marcelo GarcíaAffiliated withVen Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Email author 


The three segments of this chapter introduce phenomena that are of specific interest in the area of hydraulics. Where applicable (Cavitation, Sect. 15.1 and Sediment Transport, Sect. 15.3) introductory and descriptive material regarding the topic is provided. Terminology, physical examples and motivating descriptions introduce the comprehensive Cavitation subsection. Examples of the types of flows in which cavitation occurs are provided. This information sets the stage for a description of the types of facilities and instrumentation that are necessary to study the problem. Numerous photographs and descriptive sketches clarify and complement the text.

The wave height measurement segment first deals with fixed position single "point" techniques. More advanced techniques for: i) wave surface shape along a horizontal line, and ii) two-dimensional surface geometry measurements for laboratory and field observations are then described.

Following the introduction to sediment transport phenomena and terminology, the methods of measurement: manual, optical and acoustic are given detailed descriptions including calibration techniques for the latter two methods. Bed load sediment measurements: pressure difference, sediment trapping and acoustic are next described. Total load and the less common measurement techniques, plus references complete the subsection.