Osteoarthritis is a common synovial jointdisease characterized by the failed and often aberrant repair of damaged joint tissue. Osteoarthritis pathology typically involves progressive focal areas of damage to the articular cartilage on load-bearing surfaces. Additional pathologies that are involved in osteoarthritis to varying degrees include abnormal bone remodeling along the joint margins and in the subchondral region, meniscal tears, mild synovitis, and changes in ligament, periarticular muscle, and peripheral nerve function. When the disease is advanced, osteoarthritic changes can be detected on plain radiographs as a narrowing of joint space (due to cartilage loss), the development of osteophytes (boney outgrowths along the joint margin), and changes in subchondral bone density. Clinically, osteoarthritis is associated with restricted joint range of movement, stiffness, pain, cracking of joints (crepitus), and...
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