Encyclopedia of Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease

2012 Edition
| Editors: Frank C. Mooren


  • Stella Lucia VolpeEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29807-6_247



 Micronutrients consist of vitamins and minerals and differ from  macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) in that the human body requires much smaller amounts. The use of macronutrients for all physiologic processes is facilitated by micronutrients [1]. Therefore, vitamins and minerals are necessary for many metabolic processes in the body, as well as to support growth and development. Vitamins and minerals are also  key regulators in a number of reactions involved with exercise and physical activity, such as  energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, oxygen transfer and delivery, and tissue repair.


The vitamin and mineral needs of individuals who are physically active have always been a topic of debate. Some reports state that those who exercise require more vitamins and minerals than their sedentary counterparts, but others do not report greater micronutrient requirements. The intensity,...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition SciencesDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA