Encyclopedia of Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease

2012 Edition
| Editors: Frank C. Mooren

Metabolism: Carbohydrate

  • Yajun ChenEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29807-6_132

Carbohydrates are one of the three main types of foods, known as macronutrients, along with proteins and fats. A carbohydrate is an organic compound with a general empirical formula of approximately Cm(H2O), that is, consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. Structurally however, it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

Carbohydrates (saccharides) are commonly divided into four chemical groupings in biochemistry: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. In general, the monosaccharides and disaccharides, which are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars [2]. The term “saccharide” comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον (sákkharon), meaning “sugar.” While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine, Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S (2009) American college of sports medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(3):709–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flitsch SL, Ulijn RV (2003) Sugars tied to the spot. Nature 421:219–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hare-Bruun H, Flint A, Heitmann BL (2006) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:871–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM (1981) Slow release carbohydrate and the treatment of diabetes. Proc Nutr Soc 40:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maton A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD (1993) Human biology and health. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 52–59Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Romaguera D, Angquist L, Du H, Jakobsen MU, Forouhi NG, Halkjaer J, Feskens EJ, van der A DL, Masala G, Steffen A, Palli D, Wareham NJ, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Boeing H, Riboli E, Sørensen TI (2010) Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index – a proxy measure of visceral adiposity. PLoS One 5(7):e11588PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Public HealthSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina