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Neuronal Cell Death and Inflammation

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Encyclopedia of Neuroscience


Excitotoxicity; Apoptosis; Necrosis; Virotexias; Encephalitis; Chemokines; Cytokines; Chemtaxis; Blood brain barrier; Matrix metallo Proteinases


Exitotoxicity is a mechanism which often leads to Neuronal cell damage or death. Excitotoxicity occurs when glutamate receptors on neurons are overactivated. Neuronophagia occurs when nerve cells are phagocytosed or internalized by macrophages. This often happens to clear debris after the neurons have undergone apoptosis, but in some neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative conditions, the neurons may be killed as the macrophages digest them. Necrosis is a process of cell death whereby cells swell, rupture, and release their contents, causing inflammationand damage to neighboring cells. In the nervous system, this usually happens in response to stroke or trauma. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis is a form of cell death which does not cause inflammation, but, rather, is frequently the result of inflammatory processes....

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This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants to JR and AN.

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© 2009 Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg

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Rumbaugh, J.A., Nath, A. (2009). Neuronal Cell Death and Inflammation. In: Binder, M.D., Hirokawa, N., Windhorst, U. (eds) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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