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Alkalosis

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Synonyms

Alcalosis; Alkalemia

Definition and Characteristics

Alkalosis is characterized by an arterial blood pH > 7.44. Metabolic alkalosis is due to a primary elevation of the plasma \({\rm{HCO}}_{\rm{3}}^ -\)concentration. Respiratory alkalosis is defined by a primary reduction of P CO2 due to hyperventilation (Fig. 1) [1].

Alkalosis. Figure 1
figure 1_77

Two major forms of alkalosis have to be distinguished, induced primarily by a change in metabolic functions or by a primary increase in respiration. Respiratory alkalosis can be initiated by a variety of events acting either directly on the respiratory center in the brainstem or stimulating peripheral chemo- or mechanosensors leading to increased respiratory drive. Metabolic alkalosis can be further subdivided in chloride-responsive and chloride-resistant forms. In general, chloride-sensitive forms are caused by an initial loss of salt and extracellular volume depletion which secondarily increases aldosterone activity, salt retention, potassium...

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Alkalosis. Figure 1

References

  1. Rose BD, Post TW (2001) Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. McGraw-Hill Professional New York, London Toronto

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  2. Adrogue HJ, Madias NE (1998) N Engl J Med 338:107–111

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  3. Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J (2007) Comprehensive clinical nephrology. Mosby Edinburgh London, New York

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  4. Lifton RP, Gharavi AG, Geller DS (2001) Cell 104:545–556

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  5. Khanna A, Kurtzman NA (2006) J Nephrol Suppl 9:S86–S96

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Mohebbi, N., Wagner, C.A. (2009). Alkalosis. In: Lang, F. (eds) Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29676-8_77

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