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Hybridization and Hybridity

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Definition

Hybridization generally refers to the process and hybridity to the product of a mixture of essentially contradictory and conflicting elements. We refer to it here as a combination of the characteristics of civil society, market, and state and mainly focus on hybrid organizations, as these have raised the most pressing questions in research on civil society. These hybrid organizations operate at the borders between the spheres of the market, state, and civil society and combine the characteristics and logics conventionally attached to each of them (Billis and Rochester 2020; Brandsen et al. 2005; Denis et al. 2015; Karré 2011, 2020; Koppenjan et al. 2019; Skelcher and Smith 2014; Vakkuri and Johanson 2018). By doing so, they “(1) involve a variety of stakeholders, (2) pursue multiple and often conflicting goals, (3) engage in divergent or inconsistent activities” (Mair et al. 2015, p. 714). Examples of hybrid organizations include non-profits that deliver public services and...

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Correspondence to Taco Brandsen or Philip Marcel Karré .

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Brandsen, T., Karré, P.M. (2021). Hybridization and Hybridity. In: List, R.A., Anheier, H.K., Toepler, S. (eds) International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99675-2_34-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99675-2_34-1

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