Polymer Scaffolds for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tissue Engineering

  • Fiona Serack
  • Nathaniel Holwell
  • Brian G. AmsdenEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)


There is a clear clinical need to generate effective tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) for reconstructive surgery. A variety of polymeric materials, scaffold designs, cell sources, and bioreactor conditions have been explored for this purpose. It is the objective of this chapter to introduce the structure and function of a healthy anterior cruciate ligament, outline the desirable properties of an effective tissue engineering approach, and review the current directions in generating an effective replacement tissue through rationale choice of scaffold design and material, cell source, and culture conditions. While significant progress has been made, and a greater understanding of the challenges involved has been gained, there has yet to be a replacement tissue engineered ACL suitable for clinical translation.

List of Abbreviations


Anterior cruciate ligament


ACL fibroblasts


Adipose-derived stem/stromal cell


Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell


Extracellular matrix


Glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine amino acid sequence


Isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine amino acid sequence


Medial collateral ligament


N-methacrylated glycol chitosan


Mesenchymal stem cell








Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate










Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Serack
    • 1
  • Nathaniel Holwell
    • 1
  • Brian G. Amsden
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied SciencesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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