Bioremediation Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Trees on Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil

  • Bamidele AdanikinEmail author
  • Joshua Kayode
Reference work entry


Soil contamination by spent engine oil is a growing concern in many countries, especially in some less developed countries such as Nigeria. Greenhouse experiment was conducted for 4 months using Leucaena leucocephala to determine its effect on the nutrients (N, P, K, organic carbon) and heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu) of soil polluted with spent engine oil [5% (w/v)]. Soil without spent engine oil was used as control. Bioaccumulation of the nutrients and heavy metals in Leucaena leucocephala was also determined. Reductions in the nutrients were observed in the soils during the first to third months of bioremediation. However, in the fourth month, 33.33% and 16.67% increase in nitrogen were recorded in the control and polluted soils, respectively. Reduction in Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu was 41%, 48.39%, 61.60%, and 52.72%, respectively, in the polluted soil, and bioaccumulation of Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu in Leucaena leucocephala planted in the polluted soil increased by 73.41%, 85.46%, 3366.04%, and 125.53% in the plant biomass. This chapter has shown that Leucaena leucocephala is effective in bioremediation of heavy metals in spent engine oil-polluted soil.


Bioremediation Spent engine oil Heavy metals Leucaena leucocephala 


  1. Adelowo OO, Alagbe SO, Ayandele AA (2006) Time-dependent stability of used engine oil degradation by cultures of Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes. Afr J Biotechnol 5(24):2476–2479Google Scholar
  2. Agamuthua P, Abioyea OP, Abdul Aziz A (2010) Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas. J Hazard Mater 179:891–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aganga AA, Tshwenyane SO (2003) Lucerne, Lablab and Leucaena leucocephala forages: production and utilization for livestock production. Pak J Nutr 2:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agbogidi OM, Ejemete OR (2005) An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of Gambaya albida (L.). UNISWA Res J Agric Sci Technol 8(2):148–155Google Scholar
  5. Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford/London, pp 285–344Google Scholar
  6. Baker DE, Amacher MC (1982) Nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium. Methods of soil analysis, No. 9, Part II, Madison, pp 331–333Google Scholar
  7. Baladincz J, Szabo L, Nagy G, Hancsok J (2008) Possibilities for processing of usedlubricating oils – part 1. MOL Sci Mag 3:81–86Google Scholar
  8. Binkley D, Menyailo O (eds) (2005) Tree species effects on soils: implication for global change. NATO Science Series, IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences 55:155–164Google Scholar
  9. Bremner JM (1996) Nitrogen-total. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis, Part 3 chemical methods. SSSA Inc., ASA Inc, Madison, pp 1085–1122Google Scholar
  10. Ekundayo EO, Emede TO, Osayande DI (2001) Effects of crude oil spillage on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of Mid-western Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 56:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. GarcíaI DM, Martín F, Simón M, Dorronsoro C (2009) Mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in a sandy-loam textured and carbonated soil. Pedosphere 19:166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenberg BM (2006) Development and field test of multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of soil. Can Reclam Spring/summer(1):27–29Google Scholar
  13. Gupta M, Kumari A, Yunus M (2000) Effect of fly-ash on metal composition and physiological responses in Leucaena leucocephala (lamk.) de. wit. Environ Monit Assess 61:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jamil S, Abhilash PC, Singh N, Sharma PN (2009) Jatropha curcas: a potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash. J Hazard Mater 172:269–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jamilu ES, Muhammed N, Ingvar B, Oryem-Origa H (2017) Phytoremediation potential of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit. For heavy metals polluted and heavy metals degraded environments. In: Phytoremediation potentials of bioenergy plants. Springer, Singapore, pp 159–209Google Scholar
  16. Juson AE, Maria-Kariza MM, Johnny AC (2016) Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Bougamvillea Spectabilis Willd. Plant systems. J of Exp Biol Agric Sci 4(1):01–06. ISSN No. 2320-8694Google Scholar
  17. Kalac P, Svoboda L (2000) A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms. Food Chem 69:273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kayode j, Olowoyo O, Oyedeji A (2009) The effects of used engine oil pollution on the growth of early seedling performance of Vigna unguiculta and Zea mays. Res J Soil Biol 1(1):15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu MS, Luo YP, Su ZY (2007) Heavy metal concentrations in soils and plant accumulation in a restored manganese mine land in Guangxi, South, China. Environ Pollut 147:168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma Y, Dickinson NM, Wong MH (2006) Beneficial effects of earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on establishment of leguminous shrubs on Pb/Zn mine tailings. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1403–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mangkoedihardjo S, Surahmaida A (2008) Jatropha curcas L for phytoremediation of lead and cadmium polluted soil. World Appl Sci J 4(4):519–522Google Scholar
  22. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page AL et al (eds) Methods of soil analysis: part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, ASA monograph number 9. ASA SSSA, Madison, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  23. Nwite JN, Alu MO (2015) Effect of different levels of spent engine oil on soil porperties, grain yield of maize and its heavy metal uptake in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. J Soil Sci Environ Manag 5(4):4451Google Scholar
  24. Ogboghodo AE, Inaga EK, Osemwota O, Chokor JU (2004) An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) using two types Forcades light and Escravos light. J Environ Monitor Asses 96:142–152Google Scholar
  25. Okonokhua BO, Ikhajiagbe B, Anoliefo GO, Emede JO (2007) The effect of spent engine oil on soil properties and growth of maize (Zea mays L.). J Appl Sci Environ Manag 11(3):147–152Google Scholar
  26. Palmroth MRT, Pichtel J, Puhakka JA (2002) Phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel. Bioresource Technol 84:221–2281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peng S, Zhou Q, Cai Z, Zhang Z (2009) Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment. J Hazard Mater 168(2–3):1490–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pilon-Smith E (2005) phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 56:15–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pulford ID, Watson C (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated land by trees-a review. Environ Int 4:529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saraswat S, Rai JPN (2011) Prospective application of Leucaena leucocephala for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and nitrogen fixation in metal polluted soils. Int J Phytoremediation 13(3): 271–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. SAS (2002) Statistical analysis software guide for personal computers. cary, NC27513, USA: release 9. 1 SAS Institute Inc. Scale comparison with water hyacinth. Bioresour Technol 163: 82–91Google Scholar
  32. Schneider J, Labory CRG, Rangela WM, Alves E, Guilherme LRG (2013) Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lay.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 262:1245–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tawfik KM (2008) A monitory field study at El Saaf-Helwan faba bean farms irrigated by industrial waste water and polluted water with sewage. J Appl Sci Res 4:492–499Google Scholar
  34. Yitao XU, Qixian F, Jixiu W, Mingrui LI, Fangdong Z, Xiao Y (2014) Heavy metal uptake characteristics of three plants grown in lead/zinc mine tailings. Environ Sci Technol 4(2): 118–138Google Scholar
  35. Yong RN (2001) Geoenvironmental engineering: contaminated soils, pollutant fate and mitigation. CRC Press, Florida, 307 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Science and BiotechnologyEkiti State UniversityAdo EkitiNigeria

Personalised recommendations