Vulnerability and Adaptation Levels of the Construction Industry in Kenya to Climate Change

  • Onkangi N. RuthEmail author
  • Mwangi Peter Njiiri
  • Erick Maklago
  • Ondari Lilian
Reference work entry


Climate change is increasingly becoming a threat to future development plans, sustainability of existing infrastructure, and biodiversity conservation. Assessment of vulnerability levels, adaptation measures, models, and climate change variables have majorly focused on biological systems. Besides biodiversity, the construction industry faces equally high threats from climatic changes with enormous carbon price-related risks.

Construction in the developing nations is gaining momentum and is a development indicator as well as a major contributor to GDP. However, infrastructure is very vulnerable structurally and financially to extreme weather conditions and events. This calls for a paradigm shift in conducting business in the construction industry in developing countries. Awareness of climate change among engineers, architects, quantity surveyors, construction managers, and contractors in the industry in Kenya was evaluated in this chapter. Further, using vulnerability and adaptation indicators in the assessment tool, the extent of integration of climate knowledge in planning and implementing infrastructure projects in Kenya was evaluated. The findings indicate that there is great need to initiate early warning systems, incorporate rigorous risk assessments to determine infrastructure vulnerability levels, integrate adaptation measures and strengths for infrastructure and buildings to continue functioning in a changing planet, and avert retrogression and mark-timing development wise.


Climate change Construction Awareness Mitigation Adaptation Vulnerability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onkangi N. Ruth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mwangi Peter Njiiri
    • 2
  • Erick Maklago
    • 1
  • Ondari Lilian
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Research and Business DevelopmentNational Construction AuthorityNairobiKenya
  2. 2.Kenya Wildlife ServiceNairobiKenya
  3. 3.University of ToledoToledoUSA
  4. 4.Clayco Construction, Inc.ChicagoUSA

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