Relationship Between Climate Change, Natural Disasters, and Resilience in Rural and Urban Societies

  • Safieh Javadinejad
  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Mohsen Nekooei
  • Neda Azam
  • Hosein Talebmorad
  • Ali Hasantabar-Amiri
  • Mohammad Mousavi
Reference work entry


The government established several strategies to decline the hazards of climate alteration. The most significant of these strategies which usually neglected is recognizing the variances between several communities with regard to resilience indicators against these impacts and improving proper strategy for each of them. This research aims to examine the alteration between urban and rural communities with regard to resilience in the extreme event of climate change.

The present research is applied in a practical way, and all possible methods (such as numerical/analytical modeling and statistical analysis) which are necessary for estimating the value of resilience or monitoring spatial-temporal characteristics of resilience have been used. The results displayed that there is an important difference between the resilience elements in urban and rural districts. Resilience in urban regions usually is influenced by economic parameters. However, social parameters are the most significant element in resilience in rural regions. Also, indicators which depend on spatial variations are critical in both rural and urban areas under the effect of climate change. Therefore, this research analyzed all the individual factors (in rural and urban areas) which can have an effect on resilience under the climate change conditions, so it can help managers to plan a better strategy for resilience during extreme events of climate change.


Climate change Natural hazards Resilience Rural and urban societies Strategy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Safieh Javadinejad
    • 1
  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 2
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mohsen Nekooei
    • 2
  • Neda Azam
    • 2
  • Hosein Talebmorad
    • 2
  • Ali Hasantabar-Amiri
    • 4
  • Mohammad Mousavi
    • 5
  1. 1.Water Resource ManagementUniversity of BirminghamEdgbastonUK
  2. 2.Department of Water Engineering, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringIsfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringLenjan Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityLenjanIran
  5. 5.Department of Civil EngineeringNajafabad Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran

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