Skip to main content

Electrolytic Abnormalities Related to Sodium in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
Oncologic Critical Care

Abstract

Sodium homeostasis and water balance are vital for a critically ill patient with cancer. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are metabolic emergencies in the oncologic ICU associated with higher mortality rates and prolonged length of stay. Patients with cancer are susceptible to have variations in plasma osmolality leading to those conditions. Drugs, tumor-related injuries, metastasis, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and other pathological conditions predispose to the dysregulation of that narrow balance. Intensivists and oncologist must assess the volume status and the plasma and urine osmolality carefully to avoid life-threatening conditions leading to neurological compromise and even death. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are commonly found in the ICU wards, so the therapeutic workup should include special attention to these electrolytic disturbances.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 949.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 1,299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. Hyponatremia. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(21):1581–9. http://www.nejm.org/doi/abs/10.1056/NEJM200005253422107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Agarwala R, Singer B, Kunnumpurath S. Palliative care in critical care units. In: Vadivelu N, Kaye AD, Berger JM, editors. Essentials of palliative care. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 417–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5164-8_24.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Berardi R, et al. Hyponatremia in cancer patients: time for a new approach. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;102:15–25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066939

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Berghmans T, Paesmans M, Body JJ. A prospective study on hyponatraemia in medical cancer patients: epidemiology, aetiology and differential diagnosis. Support Care Cancer. 2000;8(3):192–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10789959

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Castillo JJ, Vincent M, Justice E. Diagnosis and management of hyponatremia in cancer patients. Oncologist. 2012;17(6):756–65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22618570

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dev R. Endocrine and metabolic symptoms of cancer and its treatment. In: Olver IN, editor. The MASCC textbook of cancer supportive care and survivorship. Boston: Springer US; 2011. p. 117–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1225-1_13.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Doshi SM, et al. Hyponatremia in hospitalized cancer patients and its impact on clinical outcomes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;59(2):222–8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001181

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ellison DH, Berl T. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(20):2064–72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17507705

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Goldman J, Choure GS. Metabolic disturbances of acid – base and electrolytes. In: Criner GJ, Barnette RE, D’Alonzo GE, editors. Critical care study guide: text and review. New York: Springer; 2010. p. 691–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77452-7_35.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  10. Gordillo R, Kumar J, Woroniecki RP. Disorders of Sodium Homeostasis. In: Feld LG, Kaskel FJ, editors. Fluid and electrolytes in pediatrics: a comprehensive handbook. Totowa: Humana Press; 2010. p. 47–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-225-4_2.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  11. Hansen O, Sørensen P, Hansen KH. The occurrence of hyponatremia in SCLC and the influence on prognosis: a retrospective study of 453 patients treated in a single institution in a 10-year period. Lung Cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2010;68(1):111–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Latcha S. Electrolyte disorders in cancer patients. In: Jhaveri KD, Salahudeen AK, editors. Onconephrology: cancer, chemotherapy and the kidney. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 131–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2659-6_7.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  13. Nácul FE, Vieira JM. Disorders of electrolytes. In: O’Donnell JM, Nácul FE, editors. Surgical intensive care medicine. Cham: Springer; 2016. p. 539–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19668-8_40.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  14. Reddi AS. Disorders of phosphate: hyperphosphatemia. In: Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders: clinical evaluation and management. New York: Springer; 2014a. p. 253–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9083-8_22.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  15. Reddi AS. Disorders of water balance: hypernatremia. In: Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders: clinical evaluation and management. New York: Springer; 2014b. p. 133–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9083-8_13.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  16. Reddi AS. Disorders of water balance: hyponatremia. In: Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders: clinical evaluation and management. New York: Springer; 2014c. p. 101–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9083-8_12.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  17. Reddi AS. Disorders of water balance: physiology. In: Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders: clinical evaluation and management. New York: Springer; 2014d. p. 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9083-8_11.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Sakr Y, Santos C, Rother S. Sodium in critical illness: an overview. In: Annual update in intensive care and emergency medicine 2014. Cham: Springer; 2014. p. 595–611.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  19. Salahudeen AK, Doshi SM, Shah P. The frequency, cost, and clinical outcomes of hypernatremia in patients hospitalized to a comprehensive cancer center. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21(7):1871–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Scatena R. Management of severe hyponatremia and SIADH. In: Hyzy RC, editor. Evidence-based critical care: a case study approach. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 413–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43341-7_46.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  21. Sculier C, Gaspard N. Electrolyte disturbances and critical care seizures. In: Seizures in critical care. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 291–310.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  22. Stelfox HT, et al. The epidemiology of intensive care unit-acquired hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in medical-surgical intensive care units. Crit Care. 2008;12(6):R162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sterns RH, Hix JK, Silver SM. Management of hyponatremia in the ICU. Chest. 2013;144(2):672–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Teran FJ, Simon EE. Epidemiology and significance of hyponatremia. In: Simon EE, editor. Hyponatremia: evaluation and treatment. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6645-1_1.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Tucker JK, Thornley-Brown D. Disorders of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. In: Lerma EV, Rosner M, editors. Clinical decisions in nephrology, hypertension and kidney transplantation. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 103–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4454-1_11.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  26. Verbalis JG, et al. Hyponatremia treatment guidelines 2007: expert panel recommendations. Am J Med. 2007;120(11):S1–S21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17981159

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Yeung S-CJ. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies. In: Todd KH, Thomas Jr CR, editors. Oncologic emergency medicine: principles and practice. Cham: Springer; 2016. p. 243–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26387-8_21.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jorge Racedo .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Quintero, A., Racedo, J., Pérez Acosta, C.A., Aruachán, S. (2020). Electrolytic Abnormalities Related to Sodium in Critically Ill Cancer Patients. In: Nates, J., Price, K. (eds) Oncologic Critical Care. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74588-6_86

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74588-6_86

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-74587-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-74588-6

  • eBook Packages: MedicineReference Module Medicine

Publish with us

Policies and ethics