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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the Arab Society of Israel

  • Abdelnaser ZalanEmail author
  • Rajech Sharkia
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The ancient Egyptians described clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus about 3000 years ago. In recent years, diabetes had become a worrying pandemic disease. It has increased dramatically worldwide during the last decades and it affects more than 382 million people around the world, of whom 90% are diagnosed with type-2 DM (T2DM). It is rapidly increasing in developing as well as developed countries; moreover, it is even found to be increasing to a higher extent in the Arab world. Behavioral and sociodemographic factors associated with T2DM vary within different societies.

The aim of our current study is to shed a considerable amount of light on the status of diabetes in the Arab society of Israel, in relation to the various risk factors that are associated with T2DM. As this community has certain unique characteristics in relation to other residents of this country, lots of studies had been undertaken to explore and compare the incidence, prevalence, and trends of T2DM between all the residing communities in this holy land. Furthermore, in this book chapter we also attempted to shed light on the current status of diabetes in the Palestinian population living in the same holy land and abroad. In the end of this chapter, our recommendations, suggestions, and conclusions in relation to diabetes prevailing in our society are also included. We hope this chapter to constitute beneficiary information to all readers and knowledge seekers from all over the world.

Keywords

Arab society in Israel Lifestyle Physical activity Risk factors Sociodemographic factors Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 

List of Abbreviations

AD

anno Domini

AIDS

Acquired immune-deficiency syndrome

BMI

Body mass index

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CBS

Central Bureau of Statistics

CGT

Combined glucose tolerance

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DN

Diabetic nephropathy

DPP

Diabetes Prevention Program

DR

Diabetic retinopathy

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

GDM

Gestational diabetes mellitus

HbA1c

Hemoglobin bound with glucose

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HMO

Health Ministry Organization

IDF

International Diabetes Federation

IFG

Impaired fasting glucose

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

IR

Insulin resistance

LNCS

Low- and no-calorie sweeteners

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

NCD

Noncommunicable disease

NGT

Normal glucose tolerance

OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OGTT

Oral glucose tolerance test

OR

Odds ratio

PA

Physical activity

T1DM

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

T2DM

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

UKPDS

UK Prospective Diabetes Study

UNRWA

United Nations Relief and Works Agency

USA

United States of America

USD

United States Dollar

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Biology DepartmentThe Triangle Research and Development CenterKfar-QariIsrael
  2. 2.Beit-Berl Academic CollegeBeit-BerlIsrael

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anastasia Samara
    • 1
  • Atika Khalaf
    • 2
  1. 1.Health PromotionUniversity of Southern DenmarkEsbjergDenmark
  2. 2.Faculty of Health ScienceKristianstad UniversityKristianstadSweden

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