Advertisement

Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality in Jordan

  • Yousef S. KhaderEmail author
  • Mohammad Alyahya
  • Anwar Batieha
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Despite the extraordinary improvements in child survival over the past 25 years, little progress has been made in reducing neonatal mortality (NNM) in many developing countries. According to the Jordan Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality study, stillbirth, neonatal, and perinatal mortality rates were 11.6/1,000 total births, 14.9/1,000 live births, and 23.7/1,000 total births, respectively. Maternal age (<20 years old), history of preterm or low birth weight delivery, history of neonatal death or stillbirth, preeclampsia, mother’s hospitalization during the current pregnancy, primiparity, breach presentation, and male offspring are significantly associated with increased risk of neonatal mortality in Jordan. Newborns who have congenital defects, multiple births, and babies born to women who do not use antenatal care services are at higher risk of neonatal mortality. Preterm babies and low birth weight babies are almost 20 times more likely to die during the neonatal period compared to full-term babies and normal birth weight babies, respectively. Most neonatal deaths in Jordan are due to congenital anomalies (27.2%), multiple births (26.0%), or unexplained immaturity (21.7%). Other important causes include maternal disease (6.7%), specific infant conditions (6.4%), and unexplained asphyxia (4.9%). The main causes of stillbirths are maternal diseases (19.5%), unexplained immaturity (18.8%), congenital anomalies (17.6%), unexplained antepartum stillbirths (17.6%), obstetric complications (8.4%), placental abruption (5.7%), and multiple births (5%). Previous research in Jordan reported that about 30% of all neonatal deaths are preventable and that 44.3% are possibly preventable with optimal care. An efficient referral system which directs high-risk pregnancies to institutions with optimum facilities and equipment, personnel technical skills, and specialization of neonatal intensive care units (e.g., through regionalization) is needed to improve perinatal outcomes. Moreover, interventions that reduce mortality and morbidity in preterm babies need immediate attention. Improved survival for the majority of moderate to late preterm (32 to <37 weeks) and early preterm neonates (28 to <32 weeks) can be attained by improving essential newborn care and utilizing a range of low-cost and evidence-based interventions. Such interventions include the prevention and management of hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and infection, and providing adequate respiratory and feeding support.

Keywords

Perinatal mortality Stillbirth Neonatal mortality Cause of neonatal deaths Jordan 

References

  1. Abou Rashid N, Al Jirf S, Bashour H (1996) Causes of death among Syrian children using verbal autopsy. East Mediterr Health J 2(3):440–448Google Scholar
  2. Batieha AM, Khader YS, Berdzuli N, Chua-Oon C, Badran EF, Al-Sheyab NA et al (2016) Level, causes and risk factors of neonatal mortality, in Jordan: results of a national prospective study. Matern Child Health J 20(5):1061–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhutta ZA, Darmstadt GL, Hasan BS, Haws RA (2005) Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics 115(Suppl 2):519–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J (2003) Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 361(9376):2226–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell O, Gipson R, Mohandes AE, Issa AH, Matta N, Mansour E et al (2004) The Egypt National Perinatal/Neonatal Mortality Study 2000. J Perinatol 24:284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cousens S, Blencowe H, Stanton C, Chou D, Ahmed S, Steinhardt L et al (2011) National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2009 with trends since 1995: a systematic analysis. Lancet 377(9774):1319–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dababneh F, Gerber DR, As’ad DM (2008) Mortality in Jordan 2005: Directorate of Information, Studies and Research. Ministry of Health, AmmanGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawodu A (2000) Neonatal audit in the United Arab Emirates: a country with a rapidly developing economy. East Mediterr Health J 6(1):55–64Google Scholar
  9. Department of Statistics [Jordan], Macro International Inc. (2008) Jordan population and family health survey 2007. Department of Statistics [Jordan] and Macro International Inc., CalvertonGoogle Scholar
  10. Department of Statistics [Jordan], ORC Macro (2003) Jordan population and family health survey 2002. Department of Statistics [Jordan] and ORC Macro, CalvertonGoogle Scholar
  11. Di Mario S, Say L, Lincetto O (2007) Risk factors for stillbirth in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature. Sex Transm Dis 34(7):S11–S21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garite TJ, Combs CA (2012) Obstetric interventions beneficial to prematurely delivering newborn babies: antenatal corticostetroids, progesterone, magnesium sulfate. Clin Perinatol 39(1):33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldenberg RL, Thompson C (2003) The infectious origins of stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(3):861–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herman A, Modan B, Barell V, Caspi E, Barzilay Z (1990) A method of macro-auditing and assessing the preventability of infant mortality using large volume computerized files. J Perinat Med 18(6):431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khoury SA, Mas’ad DF (2002) Causes of infant mortality in Jordan. Saudi Med J 23(4):432–435Google Scholar
  16. Lawn JE (2009) 4 million neonatal deaths: an analysis of available cause-of-death data and systematic country estimates with a focus on “birth asphyxia”. UCL (University College London)Google Scholar
  17. Lawn JE, Cousens S, Zupan J (2005) 4 million neonatal deaths: when? Where? Why? Lancet 365(9462):891–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Chu Y, Perin J, Zhu J et al (2016) Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000–15: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals. Lancet 388(10063):3027–3035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McClure E, Nalubamba-Phiri M, Goldenberg R (2006) Stillbirth in developing countries. Int J Gynecol Obstet 94(2):82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Menzies J, Magee LA, Li J, MacNab YC, Yin R, Stuart H et al (2007) Instituting surveillance guidelines and adverse outcomes in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 110(1):121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ngoc NTN, Merialdi M, Abdel-Aleem H, Carroli G, Purwar M, Zavaleta N et al (2006) Causes of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths: data from 7993 pregnancies in six developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 84(9):699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Obeidat N, Khader Y, Batieha A, Abdel Razeq N, Al-Sheyab N, Khassawneh M (2019) Neonatal mortality in Jordan: secondary analysis of Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) data. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 32(2):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Population Reference Bureau (2008) 2008 World population data sheet. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC. http://www.prb.org/publications/datasheets/2008/2008wpds.aspxGoogle Scholar
  24. Richardus JH, Graafmans WC, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Mackenbach JP (1998) The perinatal mortality rate as an indicator of quality of care in international comparisons. Med Care 36(1): 54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salameh K, Rahman S, Al-Rifai H, Masoud A, Lutfi S, Abdouh G et al (2009) An analytic study of the trends in perinatal and neonatal mortality rates in the State of Qatar over a 30-year period (1977 to 2007): a comparative study with regional and developed countries. J Perinatol 29(11): 765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sankar M, Natarajan C, Das R, Agarwal R, Chandrasekaran A, Paul V (2016) When do newborns die? A systematic review of timing of overall and cause-specific neonatal deaths in developing countries. J Perinatol 36(S1):S1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Silver RM, Varner MW, Reddy U, Goldenberg R, Pinar H, Conway D et al (2007) Work-up of stillbirth: a review of the evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196(5):433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stanton C, Lawn JE, Rahman H, Wilczynska-Ketende K, Hill K (2006) Stillbirth rates: delivering estimates in 190 countries. Lancet 367(9521):1487–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiner R, Ronsmans C, Dorman E, Jilo H, Muhoro A, Shulman C (2003) Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya. Bull World Health Organ 81(8):561–566PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Winbo IG, Serenius FH, Dahlquist GG, Källén BA (1998) NICE, a new cause of death classification for stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Neonatal and Intrauterine Death Classification according to Etiology. Int J Epidemiol 27(3):499–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. World Health Organization (2006) Neonatal and perinatal mortality: country, regional and global estimates. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. World Health Organization (2018) Country profiles. WHO [cited 2018 25 March]. http://www.emro.who.int/emrinfo/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yousef S. Khader
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Alyahya
    • 2
  • Anwar Batieha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of MedicineJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Department of Health Management and Policy, Faculty of MedicineJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Diana H. Arabiat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huda Omer Basaleem
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Nursing and MidwiferyEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of NursingThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Dept. Community Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Aden, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesAdenYemen

Personalised recommendations