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Radiation Oncology in the Arab World

  • Layth Mula-HussainEmail author
  • Shada Jamal Wadi-Ramahi
  • Mohamed Saad Zaghloul
  • Muthana Al-Ghazi
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Radiation oncology is a discipline of clinical medicine that uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of patients with malignant diseases, cancers (mostly), or some nonmalignant diseases (on occasion). It is an area of medicine where radiation oncologists are unable to deliver their therapeutic measures without the input from medical physicists, radiation therapists, and other members of the radiotherapy team. Tools needed in radiation oncology were first launched in Europe in 1895 and then entered the Arab World in the 1920s. This chapter reviews the status of radiation oncology in the 22 Arab League Countries where over 400 million of people live and where there were over 400,000 new cases of cancer in 2018. The available data are not always reliable. In spite of some excellent achievements in some aspects, the facilities available are often suboptimal in many of these countries, where it is ideally estimated that one treatment machine supposed to be available for about every 500 new cancer patients. There are variations in access to care of the population in these countries, with an average of less than 40% from the ideal required coverage of radiotherapy machines based on internationally recommended standards. Similarly, there is a shortage of optimally qualified and trained personnel. The situation requires urgent attention from all stakeholders in cancer patient care and patient rights.

Keywords

Cancer Radiation oncology Arab League Countries 

Abbreviations

ABR

American Board of Radiology

ARASIA

Arab States in Asia

ALC

Arab League Countries

ASTRO

American SocieTy for Radiation Oncology

CCPM

Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine

CQMP

Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists

CT

Computed Tomography

DIRAC

Directory of RAdiotherapy Centres

EBRT

External Beam Radiation Therapy

EMRC

Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission

ESTRO

European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

GTFRCC

Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control

GTV

Gross Tumor Volume

Gy

Gray

h

Hour

HDR

High Dose Rate

HIC

High-Income Countries

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IMPCB

International Medical Physics Certification Board

IOMP

International Organization for Medical Physics

JAMAAC

Junior Arab Medical Association Against Cancer

kV

KiloVolt

LDR

Low Dose Rate

LIC

Low-Income Countries

LINAC

LINear ACcelerator

LMIC

Low-Middle-Income Countries

MDR

Medium Dose Rate

MeV

Mega-electron Volt

MP

Medical Physicist

MRI

Magnetic Resonant Imaging

MV

Mega-Volta

MVM

Mega-Voltage Machines

NCCN

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

PDR

Pulsed Dose Rate

QUARTS

QUAntification of Radiation Therapy infrastructure and Staffing needs

RO

Radiation Oncologist

RT

Radio-Therapy

RTT

Radiation Therapy Technologist

TPS

Treatment Planning System

UMIC

Upper-Middle-Income Countries

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Layth Mula-Hussain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shada Jamal Wadi-Ramahi
    • 2
  • Mohamed Saad Zaghloul
    • 3
  • Muthana Al-Ghazi
    • 4
  1. 1.Radiation OncologyCross Cancer Institute – University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Radiation OncologyChildren’s Cancer Hospital & National Cancer Institute – Cairo UniversityCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center – University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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