Advertisement

Chronic Childhood Illness in the Arab World

  • Mohammad AL Jabery
  • Diana ArabiatEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Chronic childhood illness has great physical, social, and psychological impacts on children and their families across the globe. Despite global concerns regarding the welfare and needs of this population, relatively little is known about the actual prevalence and impact of chronic childhood illnesses in the Arab world. This chapter summarizes important findings of studies with the prevalence of chronic childhood illnesses in the Arab world, and the impact of chronic illness on child and families and reviews healthcare services provided to this population. For the purpose of this chapter, we define the term Arab world as related to distinct geographic areas encompassing portions of the 22 Arab League stretching over Africa and Asia.

Keywords

Chronic illness Children Arab world Prevalence Health services Impact 

References

  1. Abdel Hakeem G, Mousa S, Moustafa AN, Mahgoob MK, Hassan E (2018) Health-related quality of life in pediatric and adolescent patients with transfusion dependent ß-thalassemia in upper Egypt (single center study). J Health Qual Life Outcomes 16(59):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0893-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abduljabbar MA, Aljubeh JM, Amalraj A, Cherian MP (2010) Incidence trends of childhood type 1 diabetes in eastern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 31:413–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abu-Ekteish F, Otoom S, Shehabi I (2009) Prevalence of asthma in Jordan: comparison between Bedouins and urban schoolchildren using the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood phase III protocol. Allergy Asthma Proc 30(2):181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajlouni K, Qusous Y, Khawaldeh AK, Jaddou H, Batiehah H, Ammari F, Zaheri M, Mashal A (1999) Incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Jordanian children aged 0–14 y during 1992–1996. Acta Paediatr Suppl 427:11–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al Frayh AR, Shakoor Z, Gad EL, Rab MO (2001) Increased prevalence of asthma in Saudi Arabia. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 86:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Eissa E (2000) The morbidity pattern among adolescents visiting primary health care centers. Saudi Med J 21:934–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Almuneef M, Qayad M, Aleissa M, Albuhairan F (2014) Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study. Child Abuse Negl 38(11):1787–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. AL-Riyami BM, AL-Rawas O, AL-Riyami A, Jasim L, Mohammaed A (2003) A relatively high prevalence and severity of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in schoolchildren in the Sultanate of Oman. Respiratory 8:69–76Google Scholar
  9. Al-Thamiri D, Al-Kubaisy W, Ali S (2005) Asthma prevalence and severity among primary-school children in Baghdad. East Mediterr Health J 11(1–2):79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arabiat D, Alqaissi N, and Hamdan-Mansour A (2011) Children’s knowledge of cancer diagnosis and treatment: Jordanian mothers’ perceptions and satisfaction with the process. International Nursing review 58(4):443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arabiat D, AL Jabery M (2013) Health related quality of life in paediatric chronic health conditions: a comparative study among children and adolescents in Jordan. Health 5(11):19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arabiat D, Altamimi A (2013) Unmet care needs of parents of children with cancer in Jordan: implications for bed-side practice. J Clin Nurs 22:531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arabiat DH, Elliott B, Draper P (2012) The prevalence of depression in pediatric oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment in Jordan. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 29(5):283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arabiat D, AL Jabery M, Abed-alqader R, Mahadeen A (2013) Jordanian mothers’ beliefs about the sauses of cancer in their children and its impact on the maternal role. J Transcult Nurs 24(3):246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arabiat D, Collyer D, Hamdan-Mansour A, Khalil A, Darawad M (2018) The impact of a mother’s emotional strains and disclosure of cancer on her child’s defensiveness and adjustment to cancer. Cancer Nurs:8. Article in pressGoogle Scholar
  16. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, AIHW (2014) Australia’s health 2014. Australia’s health series no. 14. Cat. no. AUS 178. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben Khalifa F, Mekaouar A, Taktak S, Hamhoum M, Jebara H, Kodia A, Zouari B, Chakroun M (1997) A five-year study of the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in young Tunisians (preliminary results). Diabetes Metab 23:395–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) Assessing Risk factors for chronic disease – Jordan. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5523a3.htm. Accessed 8th May 2017
  19. Economic and Social Commission of Western Asia (ESCWA), League of Arab States (2014) Disability in the Arab region: an overview. Retrieved from https://www.unescwa.org/sites/www.unescwa.org/files/page_attachments/disability_in_the_arab_region-_an_overview_-_en_1.pdf
  20. Elamin A, Omer MI, Zein K, Tuvemo T (1992) Epidemiology of childhood type I diabetes in Sudan, 1987–1990. Diabetes Care 15:1556–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Hazmi M, Al-Swailem A, Warsy A, Al-Swailem A, Sulaimani R, Al-Meshari A (1995) Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian population. J Med Genet 32:623–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El-Sharif N, Abdeen Z, Qasrawi R et al (2002) Asthma prevalence in children living in villages, cities and refugee camps in Palestine. Eur Respir J 19:1026–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Ziny M, Salem N, El-Hawary A, Chalaby N, Elsharkawy A (2014) Epidemiology of childhood type 1 diabetes Mellitus in Nile Delta, Northern Egypt – a retrospective study. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 6(1):9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hamamy HA, Al-Allawi N (2013) Epidemiological profile of common haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries. J Community Genet 4(2):147–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Howard S, Metzger M, Wilimas J, Quintana Y, Pui C, Robison L, Ribeiro R (2008) Childhood cancer epidemiology in low-income countries. J Cancer 112(3):461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Janahi I, Bener A, Bush A (2006) Prevalence of asthma among Qatari Schoolchildren: international study of asthma and allergies in childhood, Qatar. Pediatr Pulmonol 41:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Janson S, Dawani H (1994) Chronic illness in preschool Jordanian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 14:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kadiki OA, Roaeid RB (2002) Incidence of type 1 diabetes in children (0–14 years) in Benghazi Libya (1991–2000). Diabetes Metab 28:463–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E, Libman I, LaPorte R, Tuomilehto J (2000) Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide, diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group. J Diabetes Care 23(10):1516–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koot H and Wallander J (2014) Quality of life in child and adolescent illness: Concept, methods and findings. Routledge. PIGoogle Scholar
  31. Maslow GR, Haydon A, McRee AL, Ford CA, Halpern CT (2011) Growing up with a chronic illness: social success, educational/vocational distress. J Adolesc Health 49(2):206–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mokdad A, Jaber S, Abdel Aziz M, AlBuhairan F, AlGhaithi A, AlHamad N et al (2014) The state of health in the Arab world, 1990–2010: an analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Lancet 383:309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Leary A (1985) Self-efficacy and health. Behav Res Ther 23:437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pinquart M, Shen Y (2011) Behavior problems in children and adolescents with chronic physical illness: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol 36(9):1003–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rahim HFA, Sibai A, Khader Y, Hwalla N, Fadhil I, Alsiyabi H et al (2014) Non-communicable diseases in the Arab world. Lancet 383(9914):356–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Santa Barbara J (2006) Impact of war on children and imperative to end war. Croat Med J 47(6):891–894PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Saudi Cancer Registry, SCR (2008) Cancer incidence survival report – Saudi Arabia, MOHGoogle Scholar
  38. Shaltout AA, Moussa MA, Qabazard M, Abdella N, Karvonen M, Al-Khawari M, Al-Arouj M, Al-Nakhi A, Tuomilehto J, El-Gammal A, Kuwait Diabetes Study Group (2002) Further evidence for the rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Kuwait. Diabet Med 19:522–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United Nations Development Programme, UNDP (2012) Arab human development reports (AHDR). Retrieved from http://www.arab-hdr.org/undpcos.aspx
  40. van der Lee JH, Mokkink LB, Grootenhuis MA, Heymans HS, Offringa M (2007) Definitions and measurement of chronic health conditions in childhood: a systematic review. JAMA 297(24):2741–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wijlaars L, Gilbert R, Hardelid P (2016) Chronic conditions in children and young people: learning from administrative data. Arch Dis Child.  https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-310716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. World Health Organisation, WHO (2005) Widespread misunderstandings about chronic disease and the reality. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/media/Factsheet2.pdf
  43. World Health Organization, WHO (2014) Social determinants of mental health, World Health Organization and Calouste Gulbenkian. Foundation, Geneva. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112828/9789241506809_eng.pdf;jsessionid=93856F69EA8F47BD4E9D67AC178969D0?sequence=1Google Scholar
  44. Zedan M, Settin A, Farag M, Ezz-Elregal M, Osman E, Fouda A (2009) Prevalence of bronchial asthma among Egyptian school children. Egypt J Bronchol 3(2):124–130Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Counselling and Special EducationThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.School of Nursing and MidwiferyEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of NursingThe University of JordanAmmanJordan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Diana H. Arabiat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huda Omer Basaleem
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Nursing and MidwiferyEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of NursingThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Dept. Community Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Aden, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesAdenYemen

Personalised recommendations