Integrated Management of Childhood Health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

  • Huda Omer BasaleemEmail author
  • Khaled Abdulla Al-Sakkaf
  • Amen Ahmed Bawazir
Living reference work entry


Preventable and treatable diseases are significant causes for the high mortality in young children. More than two-thirds of deaths in young children are attributed to five conditions which are also responsible for 80–90% of outpatient consultations. In the latter part of the twentieth century, global meetings alerted many countries and the international health community to the severity of the situation of child morbidity and mortality. The response to this situation was to package a set of simple, affordable, and effective interventions for the combined management of the major childhood illnesses and malnutrition, under the label of “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness” (IMCI) developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund in the early 1990s. This chapter focuses on the rationale of developing and implementing IMCI; its action, phases, components, and targeted health conditions; and the international multicountry evaluation efforts.

The chapter details the context of IMCI implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region since its inception in 1996 and how the initial main focus of improving clinical care had developed to address not only the sick child but also the healthy child, in health facilities and in the home. Thus, attention in the Region was increasingly given to the development of a strategy on integrated childcare by broadening its scope into the Integrated Management of Child Health while still retaining its original acronym “IMCI.” The chapter addresses the development of IMCI at the country level, illustrating the stages of implementation, barriers, constrains, success, and ongoing evaluation efforts.


Child health Morbidity Mortality Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Eastern Mediterranean region Deaths 



World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa


Acute respiratory infection


Community health workers


Community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness


Disability-adjusted life year


Eastern Mediterranean Region


The Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office


Mean height-for-age Z-score




Integrated Community Case Management


Integrated Management of Childhood Illness


Millennium Development Goals


Multisectoral platform


Nongovernmental organizations


Oral rehydration salts


Priority Child Health Indicators


Primary healthcare


Roll Back Malaria


Supplemental Child Health Measures


United Nations


United Nations Children’s Fund




Water, sanitation, and hygiene


Mean weight-for-age Z-score


World Health Organization


Mean weight-for-height Z-score


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huda Omer Basaleem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khaled Abdulla Al-Sakkaf
    • 1
  • Amen Ahmed Bawazir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine and Public HealthFaculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of AdenAdenYemen

Section editors and affiliations

  • Diana H. Arabiat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huda Omer Basaleem
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Nursing and MidwiferyEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of NursingThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Dept. Community Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Aden, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesAdenYemen

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