The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton

Air Pollution

  • Haniyeh NowzariEmail author
Living reference work entry


The planet is made up of three major natural compartments: air, water, and soil. Pollution of those compartments will negatively affect human beings, as well as other living organisms and ecosystems. Therefore, air pollution has become an ever-increasing concern over recent decades. The metabolic activity and healthy development of most mammals relies on the availability of clean air. Oxygen – one of the major components of air – is necessary for the breathing process. The presence of pollutants in the atmosphere, such as carbon monoxide, may inhibit the role of oxygen in metabolic processes, while other pollutants, either organic or inorganic, may exhibit toxic and carcinogenic properties in humans. Plants, microorganisms, and buildings are all susceptible to the presence and undesirable effects of volatile pollutants (Kennes and Veiga 2013).


Air pollution is the presence of one or more combinations of contaminants in the air at concentrations or for periods...


Particulates Industrialization Air contamination Stationary/mobile sources 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnvironmentAbadeh Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityAbadehIran