The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton


  • Tuğba BayarEmail author
Living reference work entry


As the twenty-first century began, the number of international migrants worldwide has started to climb from 173 million in 2000 to 220 million in 2010 and 258 million in 2017. The movement does not relate to certain areas, but it includes all continents and states. According to studies, migration mainly occurs between countries that are situated in the same world region. This trend, however, does not promise migration among similar cultures. As a response to the migration influx, states started to adopt diverse policies regarding the existence of migrants in their own states. Especially those states that are more alert regarding the security concerns created by the presence of migrants, they tend to take more strict measures vis-à-vis migrants culture and their integration into the host country.


In the broadest sense, the term assimilation refers to elimination of differences during a cultural encounter. During this sociocultural process, the dissimilarities of...


Human rights Integration Culture Minority 
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Further Reading

  1. Favell, A. (2015). Immigration, integration and mobility. Colchester: Ecpr Press.Google Scholar
  2. Heckmann, F., & Schnapper, D. (Eds.). (2016). The integration of immigrants in European societies: National differences and trends of convergence (Vol. 7). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.Google Scholar
  3. Kivisto, P. (2015). Incorporating diversity: Rethinking assimilation in a multicultural age. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schneider, J., & Crul, M. (Eds.). (2014). Theorising integration and assimilation. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Vollebergh, W., Veenman, J., & Hagendoorn, L. (Eds.). (2017). Integrating immigrants in the Netherlands: Cultural versus socio-economic integration: Cultural versus socio-economic integration. Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Xie, S., Leng, X., & Ritakallio, V. M. (2016). The urban integration of migrant workers in China: An assimilation–integration pattern. China Journal of Social Work, 9(3), 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International RelationsBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey