Advertisement

A Social Justice Challenge for School Leadership in Australia

  • Megan KimberEmail author
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

Abstract

School leadership in many countries is affected by multiple challenges. Some are specific to the local community, some emerge from the education system, and some come from government policies. While most reforms center on better educational results for all students, whichever their specific area of focus, some reforms by their very nature, even if inadvertently, disrupt understandings of social justice. When educational reforms influence teachers’ professional and personal lives, as well as those of students, the scale of impact magnifies. School leaders’ decisions play an integral role in ameliorating that impact, not simply in implementing reform. A theoretical framework based on democratic theory is adapted and applied to high-stakes testing, school autonomy, performance pay, and commericalization and marketization to consider their impact on social justice.

Keywords

Commercialization Democratic deficit High-stakes testing Hollow state Performance School autonomy Social justice 

References

  1. Apple, M. W. (2013). Audit cultures, labour, and conservative movements in the global university. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 45(4), 385–394.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2013.822349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Government, Department of Education. (2014, 31 January). Independent Public Schools – Giving schools more choice [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/independent-public-schools-giving-schools-more-choice
  3. Australian Government. (2016, May). Quality schools, quality outcomes[PDF file]. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/quality-schools-quality-outcomes
  4. Balach, R., & Springer, M. G. (2015). Performance pay, test scores, and student learning objectives. Economics of Education Review, 44, 114–125.  https://doi.org/10.1026/j.econedurev.2014.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballard, K. (2012). Inclusion and social justice: Teachers as agents of change. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive school communities. Milton, QLD: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Blackmore, J. (2004). Restructuring educational leadership in changing contexts: A local/global account of restructuring in Australia. Journal of Educational Change, 5(3), 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackmore, J. (2016). Educational leadership and Nancy Fraser. Abigdon, Oxon/New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogotch, I. (2014). Educational theory; The specific case of social justice as an educational leadership construct. In I. Bogotch & C. M. Shield (Eds.), International handbook of educational leadership and social (in)justice (pp. 51–65). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-655-9-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, A. (2018, 25 June). Queensland’s independent public schools ‘destined for the scrapheap’, brisbane times, Retrieved from https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/queensland-s-independent-public-schools-destined-for-the-scrapheap-20181025-p50by3.html
  10. Bryson, A., Stokes, L., & Wilkinson, D. (2018, February). Can HRM improve schools’ performance? IZA–Institute of Labor Economics DP NO. 11348. Retrieved from https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/11348/can-hrm-improve-schools-performance
  11. Caldwell, F. (2018, 24 April). Future of Queensland independent public schools under review. brisbane times, Retrieved from https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/politics/queensland/future-of-queensland-independent-public-schools-under-review-20180424-p4zbch.html
  12. Connell, R. (2012). Just education? Journal of Education Policy, 27, 681–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connell, R. (2013). Why do market ‘reforms’ persistently increase inequality? Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 279–285.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2013.770253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cranston, N. (2013). School leaders leading: Professional responsibility not accountability as the key focus. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 41(2), 129–142.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1743212468348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cranston, N., Kimber, M., Mulford, B., Reid, A., & Keating, J. (2010). Politics and school education in Australia: A case of shifting purposes. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(2), 182–195.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09578231011027842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cumming, J. J., Wyatt-Smith, C., & Colbert, P. (2016). Students at risk and NAPLAN: The collateral damage. In B. Lingard, G. Thompson, & S. Sellar (Eds.), National testing in schools: An Australian assessment (pp. 126–138). London, England/New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Diefenbach, T. (2009). New public management in public sector organizations: The dark sides of managerialist ‘enlightenment. Public Administration, 87(4), 892–901.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.2009.01766.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ehrich, L. C., Harris, J., Klenowski, V., Smeed, J., & Ainscow, M. (2015). Ethical leadership in a time of increasing accountability. Leading & Managing, 21(1), 22–35.Google Scholar
  19. Ferlie, E., Musselin, C., & Andresani, G. (2008). The steering of higher education systems: A public management perspective. Higher Education, 56(3), 325–348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s/10724-008-9125-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fitzgerald, S., Stacey, M., McGrath-Champ, S., Parding, K., & Rainnie, A. (2018). Devolution, market dynamics and the Independent Public School initiative in Western Australian: ‘Winning back’ what has been lost? Journal of Education Policy, 33(5), 662–681.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0268080939.2017.1412502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fraser, N. (2009). Scales of justice: Reimagining political space in a globalizing world. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.comGoogle Scholar
  22. Giroux, H. A. (2011). The crisis of public values in the age of the new media. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 28(1), 8–29.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2011.544618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gobby, B. (2013a). Enacting the Independent Public Schools program in Western Australia. Issues in Educational Research, 23(1), 19–34. Retrieved from https://search-informit-com-au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=356328125976424;res=IELAPAGoogle Scholar
  24. Gobby, B. (2013b). Principal self-government and subjectification: The exercise of principal autonomy in the Western Australian Independent Public Schools programme. Critical Studies in Education, 54(2), 273–285.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2013.832338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gobby, B., Keddie, A., & Blackmore, J. (2018). Professionalism and competing responsibilities: Moderating competitive performativity in school autonomy reform. Journal of Educational Administrational and History, 50(3), 159–173.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2017.1399864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gonski, D., Boston, K., Griener, K., Lawrence, C., Scalers, B., & Tanner, P. (2011, December). Review of funding for schooling schooling – Final Report. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/review-funding-schooling-final-report-december-2011
  27. Gonski, D., Arcus, T., Boston, K., Gould, V., Johnson, W., O’Brien, L., & Perry, L-A., Roberts, M. (2018, March). Through growth to achievement. Report of the review to achieve educational excellence in Australian schools. Australia: Australian Government. Department of Education and Training. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/through-growth-achievement-report-review-achieve-educational-excellence-australian-0
  28. Gorur, R. (2013). My SchooI, My Market. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 214–230.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2013.770248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamilton Associates. (2015). School Autonomy: Building the conditions for student success. A report commissioned by the Western Australian Department of Education. Final Report. October 2015. Retrieved from https://www.education.wa.edu.au/organisation/reports
  30. Hanushek, E. A., Link, S., & Woessmann, L. (2013). Does school autonomy make sense everywhere? Panel estimates from PISA. Journal of Development Economics, 104, 212–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hawke, A. (2012). Performance management and performance pay the paradox. In J. Wanna, S. Vincent, & A. Podger (Eds.), With the benefit of hindsight: Valedictory Speeches of Departmental Secretaries, 2004–2011 (pp. 15–28). Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press. Retrieved from https://www-jstor-org.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/stable/j.ctt24h8s1.7?refreqid=excelsior%3A80ed381592311dcd7cf97bbef83b87de&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contentsGoogle Scholar
  32. Hogan, A. (2015). Boundary spanners, network capital and the rise of edu-business: The case of News Corporation and its emerging education agenda. Critical Studies in Education, 56(3), 301–314.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1750848.2014.996126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hogan, A. (2016). NAPLAN and the role of edu-business: New governance, new privatisations and new partnerships in Australian education policy. Australian Educational Researcher, 43, 93–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-0141-0162-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hogan, A., Thompson, G., Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2018). Teachers’ and school leaders’ perceptions of commercialisation in Australian public schools. Australian Educational Researcher, 45, 141–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s133884-017-0246-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keddie, A. (2014). “It’s like Spiderman … with great power comes great responsibility”: School autonomy, school context, and the audit culture. School Leadership & Management, 34(5), 502–517.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2014.938040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keddie, A. (2016). Maintaining the integrity of public education: A comparative analysis of school autonomy in the United States and Australia. Comparative Education Review, 60(2), 249–270. Retrieved from https://www-journals-uchicago-edu.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/doi/pdfplus/10.1086%2F685556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keddie, A. (2017). School autonomy reform and public education in Australia: Implications for social justice. Australian Educational Researcher, 44, 373–390.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-017-0243-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keddie, A. (2019). Context matters: Primary schools and academies reform in England. Journal of Education Policy, 34(1), 6–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2017.1402959. Online first 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keddie, A., Gobby, B., & Wilkins, C. (2018). School autonomy reform in Queensland: Governance, freedom and the entrepreneurial leader. School Leadership & Management, 38(4), 378–394.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1411901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kenway, J. (2013). Challenging inequality in Australian schools: Gonski and beyond. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 298–308.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2013.770254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim, J. (2018). Social accountability and standard-based education reform: The recall of social efficiency movement and scientific management. International Journal of Educational Development, 60(May), 80–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kimber, M. (2000). The Australian Public Service under the Keating Government: Managerialism versus Democracy (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of New England, Armidale, Australia.Google Scholar
  43. Kimber, M., & Ehrich, L. C. (2011). The democratic deficit and school-based management. International Journal of Educational Administration, 49(2), 179–199.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09578231111116725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimber, M., & Ehrich, L. C. (2015). Are Australian universities in deficit? A tale of generic management, audit culture and casualisation. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(1), 83–97.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2014.991535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kimber, M., & Maddox, G. (2003). The Australian Public Service and the democratic deficit. International Journal of Public Management, 16(1), 61–74.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09513550310456427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Koyama, J., & Kania, B. (2014). When transparency obscures: The political spectacle of accountability. The Journal of Critical Education Policy Studies, 12(1), 143–169.Google Scholar
  47. Labaree, D. F. (1997). Public goods, private goods: The American struggle of educational goals. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 39–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindblom, C. (1995). Markets and democracy – Obliquely. PS: Political Science & Politics, 28(4), 684–688.Google Scholar
  49. Lingard, B., & Lewis, S. (2017). Placing PISA and PISA for schools in two federalisms, Australia and the USA. Critical Studies in Education, 58(3), 266–279.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2017.1316285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maasen, P. (2017). The university’s governance paradox. Higher Education Quarterly, 71, 290–298.  https://doi.org/10.1111/heque.12125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marsden, D. (2010). The paradox of performance related pay systems: ‘Why do we keep adopting them in the face of evidence that they fail to motivate?’. In H. Margetts, Perri. 6 & C. Hood (Eds.), Paradoxes of Modernization: Unintended Consequences of Public Policy Reforms. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordscholarship.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573547.001.0001/acprof-9780199573547-chapter-10  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573547.001.0001
  52. McCuaig, L., Enright, E., Rossi, A., Macdonald, D., & Hansen, S. (2016). The eroding social justice agenda: The case of physical education and health edu-business in schools. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 87(2), 151–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367,2016.1163978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McQueen, S., Knock, U., Wigllesworth, G., Nordinger, R., Singer, R., McNamara, R., & Brickle, R. (2018). The impact of national standardized literacy and numeracy testing on children and teaching staff in remote Australian Indigenous communities. Language Testing, 1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532218775758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Milward, H. B. (2012). Hollow state. In H. K. Anheier & M. Juergensmeyer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of global studies (p. 808). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218557.n254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Milward, H. B., & Provan, K. G. (2000). Governing the hollow state. Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2008). The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Canberra, Australia: MCEETYA.Google Scholar
  57. OECD. (2012, May). PISA in focus. OECD. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/pisainfocus/50328990.pdf
  58. OECD. (2018). Education at glance 2018: OECD indicators. Australia: OECD Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-37-en. Retrieved from https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2018/australia_eag-2018-37-en#page1
  59. Park, S. M., & Word, J. (2012). Driven to service: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for public and non-profit managers. Public Personnel Management, 41(4), 705–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pillay, H., & Kimber, M. (2009). Quality assurance: For whom and of what? International Journal of Management in Education, 3(3–4), 270–291.Google Scholar
  61. Preiss, B. (2014, 9 March). Performance pay haunts teachers. The Age. Retrieved from https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/performance-pay-haunts-teachers-20140308-34ed6.html
  62. Queensland Government. Department of Education. (2018). Inclusive education policy statement. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Government. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  63. Queensland Government. Department of Education. (n.d.). Independent public schools: Policy framework. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Government. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  64. Rhodes, R. (1994). The hollowing out of the state: Changing the nature of public service in Britain. The Political Quarterly, 65(2), 138–151.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.1994.tb00441.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rizvi, F. (2013). Equity and marketisation: A brief commentary. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 274–278.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2013.770252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robertson, S. L., & Dale, R. (2013). The social justice implications of privatisation of education governance frameworks: A relational account. Oxford Review of Education, 39(4), 426–445.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2013.820465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rogers, S. L., Barblett, L., & Robinson, K. (2016). Investigating the impact of NAPLAN on student, parent and teacher emotional distress in independent schools. Australian Educational Researcher, 43, 327–343.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-016-0203-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Samier, E. (2008). The problem of passive evil in educational administration: Moral implications of doing nothing. International Studies in Educational Administration, 36(1), 2–21.Google Scholar
  69. Shore, C. (2008). Audit culture and illiberal governance: Universities, and the politics of accountability. Anthropological Theory, 8(3), 278–298.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499608093815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shore, C., & Wright, S. (2015). Audit culture revisited. Ratings, rankings, and the reassembling of society. Anthropology Today, 56(3), 421–444.Google Scholar
  71. Taylor, J. (2015). Closing the rhetoric-reality gap? Employees’ perspective of performance management in the Australian Public Service. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 74(3), 336–353.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8500.12066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Terry, L. (2005). The thinning of the administrative state. Administration and Society, 37(4), 4426–4444.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399705277136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thompson, J. (2011, 2 May). Top teachers to get financial rewards. ABC News. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-05-02/top-teachers-to-get-financial-rewards/2697480
  74. Thompson, G. (2013). NAPLAN, My School and accountability: Teacher perspectives of the effects of testing. The International Education Journal; Comparative Perspectives, 12(2), 62–84.Google Scholar
  75. Tirivayi, N., Massen van den Brink, H., & Groot, W. (2014). Group incentives for teachers and their effects on student learning: A systematic review of theory and evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25(4), 570–601.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2013.857697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Valentini, L. (2010, November). Justice and democracy. CSSJ Working Paper Series, No. SJ012. Oxford: Centre for the Study of Social Justice, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford. Retrieved from: https://www.politics.ox.ac.uk/materials/centres/social-justice/working-papers/SJ012_Valentini_Justice&Democracy.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Fenwick English
    • 1
  1. 1.Ball State UniversityMuncieUSA

Personalised recommendations