Advertisement

Development of Inclusive Education in England: Impact on Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

  • Zeta Williams-BrownEmail author
  • Alan Hodkinson
Living reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter considers a historical account of the development of inclusion in England and the changes made to the education of children with SEND since the 1940s. The chapter details the development of inclusive education, the complexity of defining inclusion, and what inclusion has come to mean in current practice. This historical account is considered alongside the development and dominance of the standards agenda. In considering inclusion in this manner, the original intentions of its agenda are questioned against the practical implementation of inclusive education in current practice. The chapter concludes by proposing that significant progress has not been made with inclusion because it has not been possible to accommodate it within the competing political agendas replete in England’s education system.

Keywords

Inclusion Special educational needs and disabilities Children Education Primary Integration Mainstream 

References

  1. Adnett, N., & Davies, P. (2005). Competition between or within schools? Re-assessing school choice. Education Economics, 13(1), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan, J. (2003). Productive pedagogies and the challenge of inclusion. British Journal of Special Education, 30(4), 175–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan, J. (2008). Rethinking inclusive education – The philosophers of difference in practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, D. (2005). Reinventing ‘inclusion’: New Labour and the cultural politics of special education. Oxford Review of Education, 31(1), 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Educational Psychology, 20(2), 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: A review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(2), 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banks, O. (1981). Faces of feminism: A study of feminism as a social movement. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Barton, L. (1997). Inclusive education: Romantic, subversive or realistic? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(3), 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barton, L. (2003). Inclusive education and teacher education: A basis for hope or a discourse of delusion? Inaugural Professorial Lecture, London Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  10. Batterson, C. (1999). The changing politics of primary education. Education 3-13, 27(3), 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bines, H. (2000). Inclusive standards? Current developments in policy for special educational needs in England and Wales. Oxford Review of Education, 26(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bobbitt, P. (2002). The shield of Achilles, war, peace and the course of history. London, England: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  13. Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2004). Index for inclusion: Developing learning, participation and play, in early years and childcare. Bristol, UK: CSIE.Google Scholar
  14. Booth, T., Ainscow, M., Black-Hawkins, K., Vaughan, M., & Shaw, L. (2000). Index for inclusion. Developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol, UK: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, Z. (2013). ‘We just have to get on with it’: Inclusive teaching in a standards driven system. Retrieved from https://wlv.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/2436/311413/Brown%20PhD%20thesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  16. Callaghan, J. (2009). British Labour’s turn to socialism in 1931. Journal of Political Ideologies, 14(2), 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chia, R. (1995). From modern to postmodern organisational analysis. Organisation Studies, 16(4), 579–604.  https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069501600406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chitty, C. (2002). Understanding schools and schooling. London, England: RoutledgeFalmer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chitty, C. (2008). The UK National Curriculum: An historical perspective. Forum, 50(3), 343–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chitty, C. (2009). Education policy in Britain (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Cigman, R. (2008). A question of universality: Inclusive education and the principle of respect. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 41(4), 775–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clough, P. (1998). Managing inclusive education. From policy to experience. London, England: Sage. 31–47.Google Scholar
  23. Clough, P. (2000). Routes to inclusion. In P. Clough & J. Corbett (Eds.), Theories of inclusive education. A student’s guide. London, England: Paul Chapman’s Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Cole, B. (2005). ‘Good faith and effort?’ Perspectives on educational inclusion. Disability and Society, 20(3), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole, C., & Hancock, R. (2002). The inclusion quality mark. Croydon, UK: Creative Education.Google Scholar
  26. Corbett, J. (2001). Supporting inclusive education: A connective pedagogy. London, England: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  27. Department for Education (DfE) (2010). The importance of teaching: head teachers and teachers to drive school improvement. [online] http://www.education.gov.uk/inthenews/inthenews/a0068667/importance-of-teaching. [accessed 5th March 2019].
  28. Department for Education (DfE) (2011). Support and aspiration: a new approach to special educational needs and disability. [online] http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/pdfs/2011-green-paper-sen.pdf [accessed 5th March 2019].
  29. Department for Education. (2012a). Education bill received Royal Assent. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.uk/inthenews/inthenews/a00200186/education-bill-receives-royal-assent
  30. Department for Education. (2012b). National curriculum review launched. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.uk/inthenews/inthenews/a0073149/national-curriculum-review-launched
  31. Department for Education. (2013). The National Curriculum in England. Key Stages 1 and 2 framework document Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/425601/PRIMARY_national_curriculum.pdf.
  32. Department for Education and Employment (1997). Excellence For All Children: Meeting Special Educational Needs. London: DfEE.Google Scholar
  33. Department for Education and Employment (DfEE). (1998). Meeting special educational needs: A programme for action. London, England: DfEE.Google Scholar
  34. Department for Education and Science [DFES]. (2001). Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/_doc/3724/SENCodeOfPractice.pdf
  35. Department for Education and Skills (DfES). (2004). Five-year strategy for children and learners. Norwich, UK: HM Government.Google Scholar
  36. Derrida, J. (1998). Limited Inc. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  37. DfE and DoH. (2014). SEND code of practice: 0 to 25 years Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/send-code-of-practice-0-to-25
  38. DFES. (2004). Removing barriers to achievement: The Government’s strategy for SEN. Retrieved from https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130404091106/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/RSG/publicationDetail/Page1/DfES%200117%202004
  39. Farrell, M. (2010). Debating special education. Oxon, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frederickson, N., & Cline, T. (2002). Special educational needs, inclusion and diversity: A textbook. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fulcher, G. (1989). Disabling policies? A comparative approach to education policy and disability. Lewes, UK: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  42. Galloway, D., Armstrong, D., & Tomlinson, D. (1994). The assessment of special educational beeds: Whose problem? Harlow, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
  43. Galloway, D., & Edwards, A. (1991). Primary school teaching and educational psychology. London, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  44. Gamarnikow, E., & Green, A. (2003). Social justice, identity formation and social capital: Social diversification policy under New Labour. In C. Vincent (Ed.), Social justice, education and identity. London, England: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  45. George, R., & Clay, J. (2008). Reforming teachers and uncompromising ‘standards’: Implications for social injustice in schools. Forum, 50(1), 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glazzard, J. (2013). A critical interrogation of the contemporary discourses associated with inclusive education in England. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 13(3), 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glazzard, J. (2014). From integration to inclusive education in England: Illuminating the issues through a life history account. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 9(1), 107–116.Google Scholar
  48. Gray, S. (2006). Teachers under siege. Trentham, Australia: Stoke-on-Trent.Google Scholar
  49. Higgs, G., Bellin, W., Farrell, S., & White, S. (1998). Educational attainment and social disadvantage: Contextualizing school league tables. Regional Studies, 31(8), 775–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hodkinson, A. (2005). Conceptions and misconceptions of inclusive education: A critical examination of final year teacher trainees’ knowledge and understanding of inclusion. Research in Education, 73(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hodkinson, A. (2011). Inclusion: A defining definition? Power and Education, 3(2), 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hodkinson, A. (2012a). Inclusion ‘All present and correct?’ A critical analysis of New Labour’s inclusive education policy in England. The Journal of Critical Education Policy Studies, 11(4), 242–262.Google Scholar
  53. Hodkinson, A. (2012b). Illusionary inclusion- what went wrong with New Labour’s landmark educational policy? British Journal of Special Education, 3(9), 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hodkinson, A., & Devarakonda, C. (2009). Conceptions of inclusion and inclusive education: A critical examination of the perspectives and practices of teachers in India. Research in Education, 82(1), 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hodkinson, A., & Devarakonda, C. (2011). Conceptions of inclusion and inclusive education: A critical examination of the perspectives and practices of teachers in England. Educationalfutures, 3(1), 52–58.Google Scholar
  56. Hodkinson, A., & Vickerman, P. (2009). Key issues in special educational needs and inclusion. London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Hodkinson, A., & Vickerman, P. (2016). Inclusion: Defining definitions. In Z. Brown (Ed.), Inclusive education: Perspectives on pedagogy, policy and practice. Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, C., & Symeonidou, S. (2017). The Hare and the Tortoise: A comparative review of the drive towards inclusive education policies in England and Cyprus. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(7), 775–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jones, J., Jenkin, M., & Lord, S. (2006). Developing effective teacher performance. London, England: Paul Chapman.Google Scholar
  60. Kailin, J. (2002). Antiracist education: From theory to practice. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  61. Kavanagh, D. (1987). Thatcherism and British politics: The end of consensus? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Lawton, D. (1992). Education and politics in the 1990s: Conflict or consensus. London, England: Falmer.Google Scholar
  63. Levitas, R. (1998). The inclusive society? Social exclusion and New Labour. London, England: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  64. Lloyd, C. (2008). Removing barriers to achievement: A strategy for inclusion or exclusion? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(2), 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mason, M. (2000). Incurably human. London, England: Working Press.Google Scholar
  66. Northway, R. (1997). Integration and inclusion: Illusion or progress in services for disabled people? Social Policy and Administration, 31(2), 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nutbrown, C., & Clough, P. (2006). Inclusion in the early years. London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  68. Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education). (2000). Evaluating educational inclusion: Guidance for inspectors and schools. London, England: Office for Standards in Education.Google Scholar
  69. Pierson, C. (1998). The New Governance of Education: The conservatives and education 1988–1997. Oxford Review of Education, 24(1), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Quicke, J. (1988). The ‘New Right’ and education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 36(1), 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rustemier, S. (2002). Social and educational justice: The human rights framework for inclusion. Bristol, UK: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.Google Scholar
  72. Sikes, P., Lawson, H., & Parker, M. (2007). Voices on: Teachers and teaching assistants talk about inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 11(3), 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Slee, R. (2001). ‘Inclusion in practice’: Does practice make perfect. Educational Review, 53(2), 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Slee, R., & Allan, J. (2001). Excluding the included: A reconsideration of inclusive education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 11(2), 173–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stobart, G. (2001). The validity of National Curriculum Assessment. British Journal of Educational Studies, 49(1), 26–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Strain, M., & Simkins, T. (2008). Continuity, change and educational reform – Questioning the legacy of the Education Reform Act 1988. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 36(2), 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thomas, G., & Vaughan, M. (2004). Inclusive education: Readings and reflections. Maidenhead, UK: Open University.Google Scholar
  78. UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action. Madrid, Spain: UNESCO/Ministry of Education and Science.Google Scholar
  79. Vaughan, M. (2002). Milestones on the road to inclusion 1970–2002. Inclusion week. Retrieved from http://inclusion.uwe.ac.uk/inclusionweek/articles/milestones.htm
  80. Warnock, M. (2005). Special educational needs: A new look. London, England: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain, Impact Series N11.Google Scholar
  81. Whitty, G. (2002), Making Sense of Education Policy. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.Google Scholar
  82. Whitty, G. (2008), Twenty years of progress? Educational Management Administration and Leadership. Journal of In-Service Education, 26(2), 281–295Google Scholar
  83. Winter, C. (2013). Spaces and places for disrupting thinking about inclusive education in Hard Times. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(5–6), 551–565.Google Scholar
  84. Winter, E. (2006). Preparing new teachers for inclusive schools and classrooms. Support for Learning, 21(2), 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yarker, P. (2006). A Kind of Twilight: How do teachers of English at Key Stage 3 respond to the requirement to prepare their students for SATS? Forum, 48(3), 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Žižek, S. (2009). In defense of lost causes. London, England: Verso.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK
  2. 2.Liverpool Hope UniversityLiverpoolUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • David John Matheson
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Health, Education and Well-beingUniversity of WolverhamptonWalsallUK

Personalised recommendations