Internet and Muslim Women
The Internet and social media platforms provide a space which qualifies their users to explore them for their various objectives. Muslim women are among the active users who have taken benefit from the rapid development of these digital technologies. Despite the presence of a gender digital divide in some Muslim majority countries, currently, these countries witness the growing presence of women’s voices on the Internet and social media platforms. A digital divide, due to a gap in Internet penetration rate, is evident in many countries. This, however, does not hinder the rise of a digital culture and the participation of Muslim women within it. The Internet and social media platforms have become integral for tech-savvy Muslim women and play diverse roles in their identity construction, not only through the consumption of religion online and their online religious activities. The ability of the Internet to give these women an open and anonymous space has led to the proliferation of diverse cyberactivism expressions ranging from those who use the Internet and social media platforms to voice their concerns regarding gender inequality to those who use it to accentuate their versions of true expressions of Islam. The digital platforms have also led to an increased fragmentation of authority in Islam. Islamic discourses are no longer monopolized by religious elites or ulama, especially male elites. The online environment has boosted the presence of the voices of these women – voices that reflect diverse, segmented, and fragmented Islamic public spheres.
- Amidi, F. (2018). 100 women: Muslim women rally round #MosqueMeToo. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-43006952. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.
- Anderson, J. W. (1999). The internet and Islam’s new interpreters. In F. E. Dale & W. A. Jon (Eds.), New media in the Muslim world: The emerging public sphere (pp. 41–56). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Badran, M. (2005). Between secular and Islamic feminism/s: Reflections on the Middle East and beyond. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, 1(1), 6–28.Google Scholar
- Banet-Weiser, S. (2012). Authentic-the politics of ambivalence in a brand culture. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
- Bunt, G. R. (2003). Islam in the digital age: E-jihad, online fatwas, and cyber Islamic environments. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
- El-Nawawy, M., & Khamis, S. (2009). Islam dot com: Contemporary Islamic discourses in cyberspace. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Entwistle, J. (2000). The fashion body: Fashion, dress, and modern social theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Ernst, C. W. (2003). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the contemporary world. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
- Fernback, J. (2002). Internet ritual: A case of the construction of computer mediated neopagan religious meaning. In M. H. Stewart & L. S. Clark (Eds.), Practicing religion in the age of the media: Explorations in media, religion, and culture (pp. 254–275). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In C. Craig (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 109–142). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Penguin books.Google Scholar
- Gräf, B., & Skovgaard-Petersen, J. (Eds.). (2009). Global mufti: The phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
- Grant, S. (2017). Men vs women social media usage. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/men-vs-women-social-media-usage-stefanie-grant. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.
- Halldén, P. (2006). Militant Salafism on the internet: ‘Alneda.com’ and the legacy of Yusuf al-‘Ayyiri. In L. Göran (Ed.), Religious Communities on the Internet (pp. 62–85). Uppsala: Swedish Science.Google Scholar
- Harcourt, W. (Ed.). (1999). Women@internet: Creating new cultures in cyberspace. London/New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Hofheinz, A. (2005). The internet in the Arab world: Playground for political liberalization. International Politics and Society, 3, 78–96.Google Scholar
- Huyer, S., & Sikoska, T. (2003). Overcoming the gender digital divide: Understanding ICTs and their potential for the empowerment of women. Instraw research paper series 1: 1–36.Google Scholar
- Larsson, G. (2017). Islam and the internet. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0116.xml?rskey=gbkjFM&result=9&q=islam+and+music#firstMatch. Accessed 2 Aug 2018.
- Mir-Hosseini, Z. (2016). Moral contestations and patriarchal ethics: Women challenging the justice of Muslim family laws. In W. H. Robert (Ed.), Shari’a law and modern Muslim ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Nisa, E., & Faried, F. S. (2018). Female suicide bombers: How terrorist propaganda radicalise Indonesian women. The conversation. https://theconversation.com/female-suicide-bombers-how-terrorist-propaganda-radicalises-indonesian-women-98143. Accessed 27 Aug 2018.
- Piela, A. (2012). Muslim women online: Faith and identity in virtual space. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Piela, A. (2018). Internet, blogs, and social networking. The Oxford encyclopedia of Islam and women. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t355/e0134. Accessed 26 Aug 2018.
- Pramiyanti, A., & Baulch, E. (2017). Hijabers of Instagram: The Muslim women challenging stereotypes. The conversation. https://theconversation.com/hijabers-of-instagram-the-muslim-women-challenging-stereotypes-79416. Accessed 27 Aug 2018.
- Teitelbaum, J. (2002). Dueling for ‘daʿwa’: State vs. society on the Saudi internet. Middle East journal, 56(2), 222–239.Google Scholar
- The Innovation Group’s APAC. (2017). The new Muslimah: Southeast Asia focus. Kuala Lumpur: J Walter Thompson Intelligence.Google Scholar
- Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Vermeren, I. (2015). Men vs. women: Who is more active on social media? Brandwatch. https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/men-vs-women-active-social-media/. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.
- Wheeler, D. L. (2016). Working around the state: The micro-demise of authoritarianism in a digitally empowered Middle East. In M. Noha & K. Rinnawi (Eds.), Political Islam and global media: The boundaries of religious identity (pp. 115–128). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar