Muslim Families in the West

  • Manijeh Daneshpour
  • Iman Dadras
Living reference work entry


Muslim families deal with historical, cultural, and global challenges that create a difficult context for their identity formation process. This chapter attempts to discuss how Muslim family cultures form and reform in different contexts. Therefore, cultures must be studied in relation to history, questions of power, class, and gender. This chapter also discusses how in the cultural space of contention and compliance in Muslim families, among youth and across generations, culture is made, and remade, in the communities, around the dining room table, in work place, schools, and gym class, and in the midst of family arguments. Muslims are hoping for social conditions in which positive human development and aspirations flourish in contexts supportive of democratic participation and respect for differences.


  1. Afridi, S. (2001). Muslims in America: Identity, diversity and the challenge of understanding. New York: Carnegie Corporation.Google Scholar
  2. Al-e-Ahmad, J. (1984). Occidentosis: A plague from the west. Berkeley: Mizan Press.Google Scholar
  3. Batrouney, T. (1995). Lebanese-Australian families. In R. Hartley (Ed.), Families and cultural diversity in Australia (pp. 191–264). St. Leonards: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 46, 5–68.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, J. W., & Kim, U. (1988). Acculturation and mental health. In P. R. Dasen, J. W. Berry, & N. Sartorius (Eds.), Health and cross-cultural psychology: Toward applications (pp. 207–236). California: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Bornstein, M. H., & Cote, L. R. (2006). Parenting cognitions and practices in the acculturative process. In M. Bornstein & L. Cote (Eds.), Acculturation and parent–child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 173–196). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Brubaker, R. (2004). Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cederbald, M., Höök, B., Irhammar, M., & Mercke, A. M. (1999). Mental health in international adoptees as teenagers and young adults: An epidemiological study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1239–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, C. (1999). The boundaries of blackness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Deane, C., & Fears, D. (2006). Negative perception of Islam increasing. [document on the Internet]. Washington DC: The Washington Post. 9 Mar 2006 [cited 22 Apr 2013]. Available on
  11. Deaux, K., & Philogone, G. (Eds.). (2001). Representations of the social: Bridging theoretical traditions. Oxford: Breakwell.Google Scholar
  12. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1994). The souls of black folk. New York: Gramercy Books.Google Scholar
  13. Dwairy, M. A. (2006). Counseling and psychotherapy with Arabs and Muslims: A culturally sensitive approach. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  14. Elley, J., & Inglis, C. (1995). Ethnicity and gender: The two worlds of Australian Turkish youth. In C. Guerra & R. White (Eds.), Ethnic minority youth in Australia (pp. 193–202). Tasmania: National Clearinghouse for Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  15. Esposito, J. (Ed.). (1992). Oxford encyclopedia of the modern Islamic world. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fanon, F. (1961). The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(6), 679–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freire, P. (2004). Pedagogy of the oppressed. 30th anniversary ed. New York: Continuum Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gerges, F. A. (1997). Islam and Muslims in the mind of America: Influences on the making of US policy. Journal of Palestine Studies, 26(2), 68–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haddad, Y., Smith, J., & Moore, K. (2006). Muslim women in America: The challenge of Islamic identity today. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haque, A. (2004). Psychology from Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists. Journal of Religion and Health, 43(4), 357–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harter, S. (1998). The development of self-representation. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, 5th ed., pp. 553–618). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Haw, K. (2010). Being, becoming and belonging: Young Muslim women in contemporary Britain. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 31, 345–361. Scholar
  24. Horwath, J., & Lees, J. (2008). Assessing the influence of religious beliefs and practices on parenting capacity: The challenges for social work practitioners. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 82–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Idil, R. S. (2011). Nasya Bahfen: A modern Muslim woman balancing career, family & faith [document on the Internet]. Australia: MuslimVillage Incorporated; 9 Nov 2011 [cited 22 Apr 2013]. Available from
  26. Irfan, S., & Cowburn, M. (2004). Disciplining, chastisement and physical child abuse: Perceptions and attitudes of the British Pakistani community. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24, 89–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jarmakani, A. (2008). Imagining Arab womanhood: The cultural mythology of veils, harems, and belly dancers in the U.S. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joseph, S. (1999). Against the grain of the nation. In M. Suleiman (Ed.), Arabs in America building a new future (pp. 257–271). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Klimidis, S., & Minas, I. H. (1995). Migration, culture and mental health in children and adolescents. In C. Guerra & R. White (Eds.), Ethnic minority youth in Australia (pp. 85–99). Tasmania: National Clearinghouse for Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  30. LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L. K., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., & Kissinger, D. B. (2006). Parental influences on adolescent adjustment: Parenting styles versus parenting practices. The Family Journal, 14(3), 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Little, D. (2002). American orientalism. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lockman, Z. (2004). Contending visions of the middle east: The history and politics of orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorenzo, M. L., Frost, A. K., & Reinherz, H. Z. (2000). Social and emotional functioning of older Asian American adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(4), 289–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maira, S. (2004). Youth culture, citizenship, and globalization: South Asian Muslim youth in the United States after September 11th. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 24(1), 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Masten, A., Coatsworth, J., Neemann, J., Gest, S., Tellegen, A., & Garmezy, N. (1995). The structure and coherence of competence from childhood through adolescence. Child Development, 66, 1635–1659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mathiason, N., & Qureshi, H. (2008). Inside the world of UK Muslim women [document on the Internet]. New York: The Guardian. 31 May 2008 [cited 22 Apr 2013]. Available on
  38. Mistry, R. S., Biesanz, J. C., Chien, N., Howes, C., & Benner, A. D. (2008). Socioeconomic status, parental investments, and the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of low-income children from immigrant and native households. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nashat, G. (2003). Women in pre-Islamic and early Islamic Iran. In G. Nashat & L. Beck (Eds.), Women in Iran from the rise of Islam to 1800 (pp. 11–47). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  40. Nesdale, D., Rooney, R., & Smith, L. (1997). Migrant ethnic identity and psychological distress. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 569–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oppedal, B., Roysamb, E., & Sam, D. L. (2004). The effect of acculturation and social support on change in mental health among young immigrants. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(6), 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oppedal, B., Røysamb, E., & Heyerdahl, S. (2005). Ethnic group, acculturation, and psychiatric problems in young immigrants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 646–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Phinney, J. S., & Alipuria, L. L. (1990). Ethnic identity in college students from four ethnic groups. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Phinney, J. S., & Kohatsu, E. L. (1997). Ethnic and racial identity development and mental health. In J. Schulenberg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 420–443). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Phinney, J. S., Cantu, C., & Ethnic, K. D. A. (1997). American identity as predictors of self-esteem among AfricanAmerican, Latino, and White adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(2), 165–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Phinney, J. S., Berry, J. W., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Understanding immigrant youth: Conclusions and implications. In J. W. Berry, J. S. Phinney, D. L. Sam, & P. Vedder (Eds.), Immigrant youth in cultural transition. Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 211–234). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  47. Pipes, D. (2002). Muslim immigrants in the United States. New York Post.Google Scholar
  48. Rangoonwala, F. I., Sy, S. R., & Epinoza, R. K. (2011). Muslim identity, dress code adherence and college adjustment among American Muslim women. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 31, 231–241. Scholar
  49. Romero, A. J., & Roberts, R. E. (2003). The impact of multiple dimensions of ethnic identity on discrimination and adolescents’ self-esteem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(11), 2288–2305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Washington: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  51. Schueller, M. (2005). Orientalism. In J. Gabler-Hover & R. Sattelmeyer (Eds.), American history through literature 1820–1920 (pp. 838–841). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  52. Seror, J., Chen, L., & Gunderson, L. (2005). Multiple perspectives on educationally resilient immigrant students. TESL Canada Journal, 22, 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shaheen, J. G. (2001). Reel bad Arabs: How Hollywood vilifies a people. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 588, 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sirin, S. R., & Fine, M. (2007). Hyphenated selves: Muslim American youth negotiating identities on the fault lines of global conflict. Applied Developmental Science, 11(3), 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sirin, S. R., Bikmen, N., Mir, M., Zaal, M., Fine, M., & Katsiaficas, D. (2008). Exploring dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults: A mixed methods study. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 259–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Solis, J. (2003). Rethinking illegality as violence against, not by, Mexican immigrant children and youth. Journal of Social Issues, 59(1), 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sonderegger, R., & Barrett, P. M. (2004). Patterns of cultural adjustment among young migrants to Australia. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stevens, G. W. J. M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Pels, T. V. M., & Crijnen, A. A. M. (2007). Parenting and internalizing and externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant youth in the Netherlands. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(5), 685–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Suarez-Orozco, C. (2005). Identities under siege: Immigration stress and social mirroring among the children of immigrants. In A. Robben & M. Suarez-Orozco (Eds.), Cultures under siege: Social violence & trauma (pp. 194–226). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Tinddongan, C. (2011). Negotiating Muslim youth identity in a post-9/11 world. High School Journal, 95(1), 72–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yagmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). Acculturation and parenting among Turkish mothers in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 361–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Young, I. M. (2010). Five faces of oppression. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumfield, C. Castañeda, H. W. Hackman, M. L. Peters, & X. Zúñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice (2nd ed., pp. 35–45). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Yufenu, S. (2009). The challenges faced by working Muslim women [document on the Internet]. 2 Apr 2009 [cited 22 Apr 2013]. Available from
  64. Zahedi, A. (2011). Muslim American women in the post-11 september era. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13, 183–203. Scholar
  65. Zizek, S. (2007). How to read Lacan. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Ahmed, S., & Amer, M. (2001). Counseling Muslims: Handbook of mental health issues and interventions. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Aswad, B., & Bilge, B. (Eds.). (1996). Family and gender among American Muslims: Issues facing middle eastern immigrants and their descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  3. McIrvin, S., Regula, A, & Qureshi, B. (1991). Muslim families in North America, E. H. Waugh (Ed.). Edmonton: University of Alberta PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Zizek, S. (2009). Violence: Six sideways reflections. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Couple and Family TherapyAlliant International UniversityIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of Couple and Family TherapyAlliant International UniversityLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations