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Concrete

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A general name used to refer to manufactured or synthetic rock material that is formed by cohesion and then solidifies. Concrete has similarities to a natural deposit of well-cemented, clastic, sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Typical concrete constituents are cement, water, mineral aggregates, and chemical admixtures. Bituminous material is the cement in asphalt concrete, typically called “asphalt” or “black top”; however, the most common cement used in what is called “concrete” is Portland cement, a compound made from clay and limestone. Clay is a source of silica, alumina, and iron, which upon wetting will react with calcium oxide derived from high-temperature roasting of crushed and powdered nearly pure calcite limestone (CaCO3). Wetting transforms powdered Portland cement by hydration into a durable strong solid composed of four silica and alumina compounds: tricalcium silicate (3(CaO)∙SiO2), dicalcium silicate (2(CaO)∙SiO2), tricalcium aluminate (3(CaO)∙Al2O3),...

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Concrete, Fig. 1

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Correspondence to Rosalind Munro .

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Munro, R. (2018). Concrete. In: Bobrowsky, P.T., Marker, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_65

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