Novel Inorganic Compound Based Sensors for Their Application in Nuclear Energy Programs

  • V. Jayaraman
  • T. GnanasekaranEmail author
Living reference work entry


Structure of the inorganic compounds determines their electrical conductivity, dielectric, optical, magnetic properties, etc. These structure and properties together decide the suitability of employing these materials for a given technological application. If electrical conductivity of materials is exploited for application as sensor, the type of conductivity, viz., ionic, electron/hole, and ionic-cum-electronic, exhibited by them needs to be understood. Depending on the type of conduction, they are classified as solid electrolytes, semiconductors, and mixed conductors. Several solid electrolyte systems where conductivity due to cations such as H+, Li+, Na+, Ag+, etc. are known, while only a few systems for anions such as H-, O2-, and F- are known. The conducting ion present in the solid electrolyte dictates its application as sensor in a chosen process stream, although indirect methods can also be deployed to use a solid electrolyte whose ion of conduction is different from the species to be sensed. The magnitude of ionic conductivity, transport number of the conducting ions, and the stability of the solid electrolyte in the environment of the application need to be evaluated before its selection. Although several semiconducting elements and compounds (oxides, sulfides, nitrides, etc.) are known, the use of elemental semiconductors is generally restricted to electrical and electronic devices. On the other hand, oxide semiconductors find a large application as chemical sensors for process and environmental monitoring. The bandgap, intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity, stability of the compound in the operating environment, temperature, etc. are important parameters that decide their application as sensors. This chapter deals with the selection of solid electrolyte based on oxides, hydridehalides, aluminates, phosphates, and halides their application in various nuclear energy programs. The experience of using semiconducting oxides, niobates, molybdates, etc. for various process monitoring is discussed. A brief mention on the use of titanates for piezoelectric sensor application and molten electrolyte-based sensor systems is made.


Solid electrolytes Semiconducting oxides Hydridehalides Silver halides Sodium aluminates Phophates Molybdates Niobates Zirconates Thorates Sensors for hydrogen Oxygen Ammonia Chlorine Iodine Lithium Sodium aerosol 

List of Abbreviations


Accelerator-driven subcritical systems


Body-centered cubic


Bismuth titanate


Calcia-stabilized zirconia


Fast breeder reactor


Lead-bismuth eutectic


Morphotropic phase boundary


Sodium super ionic conductor


Partially stabilized zirconia


Lead zirconate titanate


Yttria-doped thoria


Yttria-stabilized zirconia


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Chemistry DivisionMaterials Chemsitry and Metal Fuel Cycle Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic ResearchKalpakkamIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tetsuji NODA

There are no affiliations available

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