Manifestations of Nanomaterials in Development of Advanced Sensors for Defense Applications

  • Rohini Kitture
  • Sangeeta KaleEmail author
Living reference work entry


In recent times, the global science and technology is dominated by research in the nanotechnology domain, especially to explore novel materials with exotic properties, which are attributed to their nano-size regimes. Typically explored examples are metals (gold, silver, copper, etc.), organic and inorganic materials (metal oxides, polymers), carbon (graphene, CNTs, etc.), and so on, typically, in their pure and composites forms. The polymers are playing a vital role in this domain, to make the polymer-based nanocomposites, which are used for different applications in textiles, pharmaceutical, chemical, instrumentation, aerospace, aeronautical, and mechanical domains of engineering. However, one particular domain, which has sought the maximum attention of these nanomaterials, is the sensors. Sensors are an integral part of any instrumentation, mechanical assembly, automobile engineering, heavy engineering, and drug delivery vehicles or in national surveillance gadgets or in any electromagnetic application unit, such as antennas and communication electronics. A need for smart, miniaturized, extremely sensitive, selective, and accurate sensor is always on anvil.

This chapter starts with a brief outline on the progress of science and technology, typically in the domain of sensors, for low-field and low-frequency (electric and magnetic fields and ultra-low-frequency signals) detections and chemical-biological hazardous environment detections. Various approaches for sensing, used in the authors’ laboratory, would be elaborated, namely, the radio-frequency sensing approach, optical fiber approach, metamaterial approach, and conventional resistive approach. The relationships of the obtained properties would be associated with the physics and chemistry at nano-level and their energy dynamics for sensing a particular physical parameter. The chapter will be closely related to defense applications, such as chemical and biological warfare (CBW) diagnostics and hazardous environmental detections, and electromagnetic shielding applications, along with low-frequency detections for sonar technology.


Nanomaterials Nanocomposites Electromagnetic shielding Sensors Optical fibers 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysicsDefence Institute of Advanced Technology (Deemed University)Girinagar, PuneIndia
  2. 2.SpringerNature Scientific Technology and Publishing SolutionsMagarpatta City, PuneIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Himadri Sekhar Maiti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research InstituteKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Govt. College of Engg. and Ceramic TechnologyKolkataIndia

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