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Electric Field/Current-Assisted Sintering of Optical Ceramics

  • Hidehiro YoshidaEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter aims to provide an updated and comprehensive description of the development of electric field/current-assisted sintering (ECAS) technique for the production of dense, structural/functional ceramics, particularly transparent polycrystalline ceramics. ECAS is gaining interest in recent decades due to the accelerated consolidation compared to conventional, pressureless sintering and pressure-assisted sintering (such as hot-pressing). In particular, spark plasma sintering (SPS) or pulsed electric current-assisted sintering (PECS), in which pulsed direct current is applied to directly heat material up under compressive stress, has been extensively studied as an extremely powerful tool capable of producing nanoceramics and transparent ceramics in a relatively short sintering time and low sintering temperature, being promoted for practical use. The short sintering time and low sintering temperature are in fact desirable for attaining high transparency and excellent mechanical properties for polycrystalline materials.

ECAS process is still drastically improving; new findings and technologies are being actively reported. For instance, flash sintering, where densification occurs almost immediately (typically <5 s) under strong electric field, has been developed in recent decade and has been attracting extensive attention as an innovative sintering technique. In this chapter, the earlier experimental works on SPS methods and characteristic properties of the produced transparent materials are summarized, and recent attempts for elucidation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the SPS are briefly introduced.

Keywords

Electric current Electric field Electric current-assisted sintering Spark plasma sintering Oxide ceramics Densification Grain size Mechanical strength 

Abbreviations

3Y-TZP

3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal

DC

Direct current

ECAS

Electric field/current-assisted sintering technique

EELS

Electron energy loss spectrometry

HA

Hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2

HIP

Hot isostatic pressing

HP

Hot pressing

IR

Infrared

PECS

Pulsed electric current-assisted sintering

SPS

Spark plasma sintering

TEOS

Tetraethyl orthosilicate

YAG

Yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12

YSZ

Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science, School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Roy Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Knowledge Management of Nanoscience and TechnologyInternational Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI)HyderabadIndia

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