Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Living Labs: Science, Society and Co-creation

  • Gabriela Pereira LucchesiEmail author
  • Emília Wanda Rutkowski
Living reference work entry


If there’s one thing academic researchers of living labs agree on, it’s that no consensus exists about the expression’s definition. In spite of that, basic concepts are used when trying to understand living labs, such as multiple stakeholders, co-creation, innovation, and real-life context. On a basic level, one can understand living labs as “co-creation ecosystems for human-centric research and innovation” (Westerlund and Leminen 2011). Furthermore, living labs can be defined as “an emerging open innovation approach that involves multiple stakeholders, including users, to co-create value that eventually leads to innovation” (Veeckman et al. 2013).

In a more practical approach, Westerlund and Leminen (2011) define it as “physical regions or virtual realities where stakeholders form public-private-people partnerships (4Ps) of firms, public agencies, universities, institutes and users, all collaborating for creation, prototyping, validating and testing new technologies,...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Pereira Lucchesi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emília Wanda Rutkowski
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban DesignState University of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Lizhen Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of manufacturing and civil engineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyGjøvikNorway