Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Smart Cities: Definitions, Evolution of the Concept and Examples of Initiatives

  • Filipe MouraEmail author
  • João de Abreu e Silva
Living reference work entry



Smart cities were defined by the British Standards Institute as “the effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver a sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens” (BSI 2014). Complementarily, a smart city can be defined as an urban area (encompassing possibly different areas and scales of the city – street, plaza, neighborhood, or, ultimately, an entire city) that uses electronic data collection sensors located in infrastructures, buildings, vehicles, institutions, and devices (IoT, Internet of Things) to supply real-time information of the main cities’ operating systems. The latter include energy, transportation, water supply, sewage, waste, law enforcement, and information and communication. All sensorized data is integrated into information and communication technology (ICT) platforms to allow city managers and decision-makers to optimize the efficiency and...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

Section editors and affiliations

  • Heather Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.CESUR, Center for Urban and Regional Systems, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal