Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Biofuel Development: Institutional Design Across the World

Living reference work entry



Biofuel – biodiesel and bioethanol – is primarily made from biomass obtained from variety of plants and agriculture crops. The biomass availability varies across countries/region. Biofuel is used as an alternative to the petroleum fuel. For this study biofuel is operationalized as production of biodiesel and bioethanol from – land-intensive – plants and agriculture crops.

Institutions are humanly devised informal and formal constrains that structures the social, political, and economic interaction, to create order and reduce uncertainty in exchange (North 1991). Institutions can be defined as the sets of working rules that are used to determine who is eligible to make decisions in some arena, what actions are allowed or constrained, what aggregation rule will be used, what procedures must be followed, what information must or must not be...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



The primary work on this topic was done as part of Fellow Programme in Rural Management at Institute of Rural Management, Anand. The study was funded by Reserve Bank of India. This manuscript is updated version of earlier work by Mishra (2018).


  1. Abramovay R (2008) A political-cultural approach to the biofuels market in Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo. Dated 10 Mar 2009Google Scholar
  2. Abramovay R, Magalhães R (2007) The access of family farmers to biodiesel markets: partnerships between big companies and social movements. Department of Economics and Environmental Program of University of São Paulo, São Paulo. Dated 27 Mar 2011Google Scholar
  3. Altenburg T et al (2009) Biodiesel in India: value chain organisation and policy options for rural development. The German Development Institute, BonnGoogle Scholar
  4. Babcock BA (2008) Breaking the link between food and biofuels. Center forAgricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, AmesGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauwens D (2012) EU cap ‘only boosts biofuels’. 12 Dec 2012
  6. Cabraal RA et al (2005) Productive uses of energy for rural development. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:117–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ciucci M (2020) Renewable energy. Dated 14 June 2020
  8. Cotula L et al (2008) Fuelling exclusion? The biofuels boom and poor people’s access to land. IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Daily Pioneer (2012) Jairam has no faith in jatropha biofuel. Dated 04 Dec 2012
  10. Eijck JV, Romijn H (2008) Prospects for Jatropha biofuels in Tanzania: an analysis with strategic niche management. Energy Policy 36(1):311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elliott KN (2015) The time to reform US biofuel policy is now. Center for Global Government, Washington, DC. Dated 16 Nov 2016
  12. EU (2018) Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast). Dated 28 May 2020
  13. EWG (2020) Corn subsidies in the United States totaled $113.9 billion from 1995–2019. Dated 24 Apr 2020
  14. Flach B et al (2015) EU: biofuel annual 2015. GAIN report number: NL5028. Dated 10 Nov 2016
  15. Glystra C (2019) Analysis: EU biofuels 2020 policy framework headache for blenders. Dated 20 Apr 2020
  16. Goldemberg J, Johansson TB (eds) (1995) Energy as an instrument for socio-economic development. UNDP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldemberg et al (1985) Basic needs and much more with one kilowatt per capita. Ambio 14(4–5):190–200Google Scholar
  18. Hattangadi S (2000) ॥महा उपनिषद्॥. Dated 20 May 2020
  19. Helmar M et al (2017) The economic impacts of U.S. tariffs for ethanol and biodiesel. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  20. Henniges O, Zeddies J (2006) Bioenergy in Europe: experiences and prospects. In: Hazell P, Pachauri RK (eds) Bioenergy and agriculture: promises and challenges. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Hindustan Times (HT) (2007) Evolution of India’s biofuel. Dated 14 June 2020
  22. IEA (2019) Task 39-commercialising conventional and advanced liquid biofuels from biomass-triennium 2016–18. IEA, Paris. Dated 10 June 2020Google Scholar
  23. IEA (2020) Activities: tasks. Dated 10 June 2020
  24. Jongh DJ (2006) State of art Jatropha Development Mozambique, Arrakis, Veldhoven, Netherlands. Dated 10 Feb 2009
  25. Junior et al (2019) Exploring future scenarios of ethanol demand in Brazil and their land-use implications. Energy Policy 134:110958. Scholar
  26. Kelly R (2012) The hunger grains: the fight is on, time to scrap EU biofuel mandates. Oxfam briefing paper. Oxfam, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Kojima M et al (2007) Considering trade policies for liquid biofuels. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. Kummamuru B (2016) WBA global bioenergy statistics 2017. World Bioenergy Association, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  29. Margonelli L (2008) Oil on the brain: petroleum’s long, strange trip to your tank. Broadway Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Mishra SN (2016) Policy implementation and institutional dynamics: a study of Jatropha based biofuel policy in Chhattisgarh, India. FPRM thesis, Institute of Rural Management, AnandGoogle Scholar
  31. Mishra SN (2018) Exploring the institutional design of biofuel development across world. In: Kaushik G, Chaturvedi S, Chel A (eds) Biofuels-advances and perspectives. Studium Press LLC, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell D (2010) Biofuels in Africa: opportunities, prospects, and challenges. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. Moioli et al. (2018) Analysis of the current world biofuel production under a water–food–energy nexus perspective. Advances in Water Resources 12: 22–31Google Scholar
  34. Morais L (2020) Brazil’s ethanol consumption breaks record, grows 10.5% in 2019. Dated 25 Apr 2020
  35. Nogueira LAH, Capaz R (2013) Biofuels in Brazil: evolution, achievements and perspectives on food security. Glob Food Sec 2(2):117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. North DC (1991) Institutions. J Econ Perspect 5(1):97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. OECD/FAO (2016) OECD-FAO agricultural outlook 2016–2025. OECD Publishing, Paris. Scholar
  38. Ostrom E (1991) Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Planning Commission (2003) Report of the Committee on development of biofuel. Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  40. Purkus A et al (2019) The role of a renewable energy target for the transport sector beyond 2020: lessons learned from EU biofuel policy. In: Gawel E, Strunz S, Lehmann P, Purkus A (eds) The European dimension of Germany’s energy transition. Springer, Cham. Scholar
  41. Rothkopf G (2007) A blueprint for green energy in the Americas: strategic analysis of opportunities for Brazil and the hemisphere. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Searchinger T et al (2008) Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science 319(5867):1238–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development (SPWD) (2007) Allocation of wastelands for bio-fuel plantation in Rajasthan. Institute of Development Study, JaipurGoogle Scholar
  44. Staley BC, Bradley R (2008) Plants at the pump: reviewing biofuels’ impacts and policy recommendations. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  45. Stattman SL et al (2018) Toward sustainable biofuels in the European Union? Lessons from a decade of hybrid biofuel governance. Sustainability 10(11):4111. Scholar
  46. TERI (2010) The executive summary of the biofuel assessment report. Dated 10 Dec 2012
  47. Weimer DL (1995) Institutional design. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Rural ManagementXavier UniversityBhubaneswarIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Marcos Antonio Leite Frandoloso
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Passo FundoPasso FundoBrazil