Skip to main content

Students and Their Computer Literacy: Evidence and Curriculum Implications

Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

For a number of years, education authorities have responded to the importance of school students developing computer literacy by including it as part of the school curriculum, directly as a cross-curriculum capability, and by assessing the extent to which students are computer literate. Computer literacy and related concepts, such as ICT literacy, are defined so as to include both technological expertise and information literacy. Assessments of computer literacy, even though they vary, indicate that there are substantial variations in levels of computer literacy among students in the lower years of secondary school. In technologically developed countries, approximately one half of Year 8 students demonstrate proficiency, or advanced proficiency, in computer literacy, but up to 10% have very limited computer literacy. Assessments of computer literacy can also provide the basis for progression maps that could be used to inform curriculum development. Those progression maps will be more valuable if the frameworks on which they are based become more strongly integrated with each other. In addition, computer literacy appears to be influenced by student background, including familiarity with computers, as well as the emphases placed on it in classrooms and schools and the support provided by ICT in education systems. At present, there is less information about school and classroom influences on computer literacy than there is about student background influences. In the immediate future, the construct of computer literacy may need to accommodate increasingly to changes in software and hardware contexts in which it is manifested.

Keywords

  • Computer literacy
  • ICT literacy
  • Asessment
  • Curriculum

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-71054-9_4
  • Chapter length: 20 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   599.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-71054-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   799.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Aesaert, K., van Nijlen, D., Vanderlinde, R., & van Braak, J. (2014). Direct measures of digital information processing and communication skills in primary education: Using item response theory for the development and validation of an ICT competence scale. Computers & Education, 76, 168–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.03.013.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Aesaert, K., van Braak, J., van Nijlen, D., & Vanderlinde, R. (2015). Primary school pupils ICT competences: Extensive model and scale development. Computers & Education, 81, 326–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.021.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Fraillon, J., & Gebhardt, E. (2016). Conceptualizing and measuring computer and information literacy in cross-national contexts. Applied Measurement in Education, 29(4), 291–309. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957347.2016.1209205.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). (2016). A global measure of digital and ICT literacy skills. Background paper prepared for the 2016 Global Education Monitoring Report: Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable futures for all. Paris: UNESCO. ED/GEMR/MERT/2016/P1/4. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002455/245577e.pdf.

  • Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2012). National Assessment Program – ICT literacy years 6 & 10 2011 report. Sydney: Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). Available: http://www.nap.edu.au/_resources/NAP_ICTL_2011_Public_Report_Final.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2015). National Assessment Program – ICT literacy years 6 & 10 2014 report. Sydney: Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). Available: http://www.nap.edu.au/_resources/D15_8761__NAP-ICT_2014_Public_Report_Final.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2017). Information and communication technology (ICT) capability. Sydney: Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). Available: http://v7-5.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Pdf/ICT.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barr, D., Harrison, J., & Conery, L. (2011). Computational thinking: A digital age skill for everyone. Learning and Leading with Technology, 38(6), 20–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). The “digital natives” debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775–786.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Binkley, M., Erstad, E., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., et al. (2012). Defining 21st century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Catts, R., & Lau, J. (2008). Towards information literacy indicators. Paris: UNESCO.

    Google Scholar 

  • Claro, M., Preiss, D., San Martin, E., Jara, I., Hinostraoza, J. E., Valenzuela, S., Cortes, F., & Nussbaum, M. (2012). Assessment of 21st century ICT skills in Chile: Test design and results from high school level students. Computers and Education, 59, 1042–1053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.04.004.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Bortoli, L., Buckley, S., Underwood, C., O’Grady, E., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). ICILS 2013: Australian students’ readiness for study, work and life in the digital age. Melbourne: ACER. http://research.acer.edu.au/ict_literacy/6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dexter, S. (2008). Leadership for IT in schools. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (Vol. 2, pp. 543–554). New York: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Educational Testing Service (ETS), International ICT Literacy Panel. (2002). Digital transformation – A framework for ICT literacy. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • E-learning Nordic. (2006). E-learning Nordic 2006: The impact of ICT on education. Denmark: Ramboll Management.

    Google Scholar 

  • European Commission. (2008). Digital Literacy European Commission working paper and recommendations from Digital Literacy High-Level Expert Group. Retrieved 21 Oct 2010 from http://www.ifap.ru/library/book386.pdf.

  • European Commission. (2010). Digital competence: Identification and European-wide validation of its key components for all levels of learners (DIGCOMP). Retrieved 26 Nov 2012, from http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/EAP/DIGCOMP.html.

  • European Commission, Joint Research Centre-IPTS on behalf of DG Education and culture. (2013). DIGCOMP: A framework for developing and understanding digital competence in Europe. Retrieved from http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC83167.pdf.

  • Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital competence in practice: An analysis of frameworks. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. Retrieved 5 Feb 2013 from http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=5099.

  • Fraillon, J., Schulz, W., & Ainley, J. (2013). International computer and information literacy study assessment framework. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Retrieved from http://www.iea.nl/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Electronic_versions/ICILS_2013_Framework.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). Preparing for life in a digital age. The IEA international computer and literacy information study international report. Heidelberg: Springer Cham.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffin, P., McGaw, B., & Care, E. (2012). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Dordrecht: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grover, S., & Pea, R. (2013). Computational thinking in K–12: A review of the state of the field. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 38–43. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12463051.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hatlevik, O. E., Ottestad, G., & Throndsen, I. (2015). Predictors of digital competence in 7th grade: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31, 220–231.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Helsper, E., & Eynon, R. (2010). Digital natives: Where is the evidence? British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 503–520. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920902989227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hinostroza, J. E., Hepp, P., & Cox, C. (2008). Policies and practices on ICT in education in Chile: Enlaces. In T. Plomp, R. E. Anderson, N. Law, & A. Quale (Eds.), Cross-national policies and practices on information and communication technology in education (Revised ed.). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) technology and engineering literacy (TEL) assessment. Retrieved on 8 Feb 2013 from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/tel/.

  • Katz, I. R. (2007). Testing information literacy in digital environments: ETS’s iSkills assessment. Information Technology and Libraries, 26(3), 3–12.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, J., & Lee, W. (2013). Meanings of criteria and norms: Analyses and comparisons of ICT literacy competencies of middle school students. Computers & Education, 64, 81–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.018.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, H. S., Kil, H. J., & Shin, A. (2014). An analysis of variables affecting the ICT literacy level of Korean elementary school students. Computers & Education, 77, 29–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.009.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Koutropoulos, A. (2011). Digital natives: Ten years after. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(4). Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no4/koutropoulos_1211.htm.

  • Kozma, R. (Ed.). (2003). Technology, innovation, and educational change: A global perspective. Eugene: ISTE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lye, S. Y., & Koh, J. H. L. (2014). Review on teaching and learning of computational thinking through programming: What is next for K-12? Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 51–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.012.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Madaus, G., & O’Dwyer, L. M. (1999). A short history of performance assessment: Lessons learned. The Phi Delta Kappan, 89(9), 688–695.

    Google Scholar 

  • Markauskaite, L. (2006). Towards an integrated analytical framework of information and communications technology literacy: From intended to implemented and achieved dimensions. Information Research, 11(3) paper 252. Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/11-3/paper252.html.

  • McDougall, A., Murnane, J. S., & Wills, S. (2014). The educational programming language logo: Its nature and its use in Australia. In A. Tatnall & B. Davey (Eds.), Reflections on the history of computers in education (IFIP advances in information and communication technology, Vol. 424). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). (2005). National Assessment Program Information and Communication Technology literacy years 6 and 10 an assessment domain for ICT literacy. Carlton: Curriculum Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). (2007). National Assessment Program – ICT literacy years 6 & 10 2005 report. Carlton: Curriculum Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. Carlton: Curriculum Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moos, D., & Azevedo, R. (2009). Learning with computer-based learning environments: A literature review of computer self-efficacy. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 576–600.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). (2016a). 2014 Abridged technology and engineering literacy framework for the 2014 National Assessment of educational progress. Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). (2016b). 2014 Nations Report Card: Technology & Engineering Literacy (TEL). https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/tel_2014/.

  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2011). PISA 2009 results: Students on-line digital technologies and performance. Paris: OECD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peyton Jones, S. (2011). Computing at school: International comparisons. London: Microsoft Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. (2007). About information and communication technology: Assessment guidance. Retrieved 7 Apr 2007 from http://www.qca.org.uk/7889.html.

  • Rohatgi, A., Scherer, R., & Hatlevik, O. (2016). The role of ICT self-efficacy for students’ ICT use and their achievement in a computer and information literacy test. Computers & Education, 102, 103–116.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sánchez, J., & Salinas, A. (2008). ICT & learning in Chilean schools: Lessons learned. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1621–1633.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Selwyn, N. (2009). The digital native – myth and reality. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 61(4), 364–379.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Senkbeil, M., Ihme, J. M., & Wittwer, J. (2013). The Test of Technological and Information Literacy (TILT) in the National Educational Panel Study: Development, empirical testing, and evidence for validity. Journal for Educational Research Online, 5(2), 139–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siddiq, F., Hatlevik, O. E., Olsen, R. V., Throndsen, I., & Scherer, R. (2016). Taking a future perspective by learning from the past - A systematic review of assessment instruments that aim to measure primary and secondary school students’ ICT literacy. Educational Research Review, 19, 58–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sturman, L., & Sizmur, J. (2011). International comparison of computing in schools. Slough: NFER.

    Google Scholar 

  • United States Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. (2010). Transforming American education powered by technology: National Education Technology Plan 2010. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education Office of Educational Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Deursen, A. J., & Van Dijk, J. A. (2016). Modelling traditional literacy, internet skills and internet usage: An empirical study. Interacting with Computers, 28(1), 13–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/iwc/wu027.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to John Ainley .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this entry

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Ainley, J. (2018). Students and Their Computer Literacy: Evidence and Curriculum Implications. In: Voogt, J., Knezek, G., Christensen, R., Lai, KW. (eds) Second Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education . Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71054-9_4

Download citation