Advertisement

Open Education Resources, Massive Open Online Courses, and Online Platforms for Distance and Flexible Learning

  • Jon Dron
  • Gerald Ardito
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

Our educational systems as we know them today evolved in a physical context defined by scarcity. The constraints of the physical realities of schools of various types – agora, one-room schoolhouses, and more modern schools of all types – and the need for all students and teachers to gather in one place at one time set limits on the availability of teaching, space, time, and resources. The advent of ubiquitous networked devices that cheaply connect us with one another, and with the reified interactions and the content we create, has greatly diminished such constraints, as have new pedagogies more suited to these open and connected learning environments. We are only beginning to adapt our educational systems to fit this new, less rivalrous, less bounded, more open reality. This chapter describes some of the main features of this more open universe, explores the different kinds of openness that are enabled, and describes some of their consequences for primary and secondary educators and learners.

Keywords

Openness Online Learning Connectivism OER Control 

References

  1. Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890.
  2. Annand, D. (1999). The problem of computer conferencing for distance-based universities. Open Learning, 14(3), 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardito, G. (2015). Building student networks: Towards a connectivist analysis of classroom learning environments. In EdMedia: World conference on educational media and technology, Montreal (Vol. 2015, pp. 760–763).Google Scholar
  4. Ardito, G., Mosley, P., & Scollins, L. (2014). We, robot: Using robotics to promote collaborative and mathematics learning in a middle school classroom. Middle Grades Research Journal, 9(3), 73.Google Scholar
  5. Boden, M. (1995). Creativity and unpredictability. Stanford Humanities Review, 4(2), 123–139. Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=212171&CFID=34973622&CFTOKEN=46572978.Google Scholar
  6. Cavallo, D., Papert, S., & Stager, G. (2004). Climbing to understanding: lessons from an experimental learning environment for adjudicated youth (pp. 113–120). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, A. (2008). Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clayton, C., & Ardito, G. (2009). Teaching for ownership in the middle school science classroom: Towards practical inquiry in an age of accountability. Middle Grades Research Journal, 4(4), 53–79.Google Scholar
  9. Clements, D. (1985). Research on LOGO in education. Computers in the Schools, 2(2), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Connor, D. V. (1970). Educational technology in Australia. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1(3), 207–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.1970.tb00534.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Jesus, H. P., de Souza, F. N., Teixeira-Dias, J. J. C., & Watts, M. (2005). Organising the chemistry of question-based learning: A case study. Research in Science & Technological Education, 23(2), 179. Retrieved from http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=W355N700768X864W.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal, LIV(3), 77–80.Google Scholar
  15. Doll, W. E. (2008). Complexity and the culture of curriculum. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(1), 190–212.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2007.00404.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doolittle, P. E. (2000). Complex constructivism: A theoretical model of complexity and cognition. Retrieved from http://www.tandl.vt.edu/doolittle/research/complex1.html.
  17. Drexler, W. (2010). The networked student model for construction of personal learning environments: Balancing teacher control and student autonomy. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(3), 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dron, J. (2007). Control and constraint in E-learning: Choosing when to choose: Choosing when to choose. Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dron, J. (2016). p-Learning’s unwelcome legacy. TD Tecnologie Didattiche, 24(2). Retrieved from http://www.tdjournal.itd.cnr.it/article/view/891.
  20. Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2014). Agoraphobia and the modern learner. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, Open for Learning Special Issue, Art. 3. Retrieved from http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/view/2014-03.
  21. Egberink, A., Gijlers, H., & Saab, N. (2015). The effect of task and collaboration support on learning processes and learning results in a CSCL environment. In 11th international conference on computer supported collaborative learning.Google Scholar
  22. Evard, M. (1996). Children online: Constructing community standards. In International conference on learning sciences (p. 379). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
  23. Fiedler, S. (2014). Open-sourcing’ personal learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2014(1), Art. 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2000). Motivation crowding theory: A survey of empirical evidence. Zurich: University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics.Google Scholar
  25. Gardner, D. P. (1983). A nation at risk. Washington, DC: The National Commission on Excellence in Education, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  26. Hartnett, M., St George, A., & Dron, J. (2011). Being together: Factors that unintentionally undermine motivation in co-located online learning environments. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15(1), 1–16. Retrieved from http://journals.akoaotearoa.ac.nz/index.php/JOFDL/article/view/19.Google Scholar
  27. Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: A child of complexity theory. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity & Education, 4(1), 111–117. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=url,ip,uid&db=ehh&AN=32917380&site=ehost-live.Google Scholar
  28. Haughey, M., & Muirhead, B. (2005). Evaluating learning objects for schools. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 8(1). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ850358.
  29. Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Thinking technology: Toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology, 34(4), 34–37.Google Scholar
  30. Lee, C. S., Hayes, K. N., Seitz, J., DiStefano, R., & O’Connor, D. (2016). Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science. International Journal of Science Education, 38(2), 1–24.Google Scholar
  31. Legault, L. (2016). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In T. J. Shackelford & V. Zeigler-Hill (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. New York: Springer International Publishing AG.Google Scholar
  32. Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Tan, O. S., Koh, C., & Ee, J. (2009). A self-determination approach to understanding students’ motivation in project work. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(1), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martin, F. G. (1994). Circuits to control: Learning engineering by designing LEGO robots. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  34. Martinez, S. L., & Stager, G. (2014). Invent to learn: Making, tinkering, and engineering in the classroom. Torrance: Constructing Modern Knowledge Press.Google Scholar
  35. Mason, R. (1994). Using communications media in open and flexible learning. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  36. Mitra, S. (2012). In Kindle (Ed.), Beyond the hole in the wall: Discover the power of self-organized learning. New York: TED.Google Scholar
  37. Neill, A. S., & Lamb, A. (1995). Summerhill school: A new view of childhood. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Papert, S. (1993). The children’s machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. In Constructionism. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Paulsen, M. (1993). The hexagon of cooperative freedom: A distance education theory attuned to computer conferencing. DEOS, 3(2). Retrieved from Retrieved Dec 2007 from http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/21/hexagon.html.
  41. Pea, R. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In G. Saloman (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 47–87). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Peters, O. (1994). Otto Peters on distance education: The industrialization of teaching and learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2008). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 223–244). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernandez, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., … Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: Programming for all. Communication of the ACM, 52(11), 60–67.  https://doi.org/10.1145/1592761.1592779.
  45. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31–38.Google Scholar
  46. Schwartz, B. (2004). The paradox of choice: Why less is more. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  47. Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3–10. Retrieved from http://www.itdl.org/journal/jan_05/article01.htm.Google Scholar
  48. Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/07/25/moocs-are-really-a-platform/.
  49. Simpson, J. B. (Ed.). (1988). Simpson’s contemporary quotations: The most notable quotes since 1950, compiled by James B. Simpson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  50. Stephens, D. J. (2013). Hacking your education: Ditch the lectures, save tens of thousands, and learn more than your peers ever will. New York: Penguin Publishing Group. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books?id=0PsNJw-93oAC.Google Scholar
  51. Urrea, C., & Bender, W. (2012). Making learning visible. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(4), 227–241.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-228X.2012.01161.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Wiley, D., Bliss, T. J., & McEwen, M. (2014). Open educational resources: A review of the literature. In M. J. Spector, D. M. Merrill, J. Elen, & J. M. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 781–789). New York: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5_63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Crown 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Athabasca UniversityAthabascaCanada
  2. 2.Pace UniversityNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Roumen Nikolov
    • 1
  • Kwok-Wing Lai
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Library Studies and Information TechnologiesSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.University of Otago College of EducationDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations