Open Education Resources, Massive Open Online Courses, and Online Platforms for Distance and Flexible Learning
- 1.6k Downloads
Our educational systems as we know them today evolved in a physical context defined by scarcity. The constraints of the physical realities of schools of various types – agora, one-room schoolhouses, and more modern schools of all types – and the need for all students and teachers to gather in one place at one time set limits on the availability of teaching, space, time, and resources. The advent of ubiquitous networked devices that cheaply connect us with one another, and with the reified interactions and the content we create, has greatly diminished such constraints, as have new pedagogies more suited to these open and connected learning environments. We are only beginning to adapt our educational systems to fit this new, less rivalrous, less bounded, more open reality. This chapter describes some of the main features of this more open universe, explores the different kinds of openness that are enabled, and describes some of their consequences for primary and secondary educators and learners.
KeywordsOpenness Online Learning Connectivism OER Control
- Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890.
- Ardito, G. (2015). Building student networks: Towards a connectivist analysis of classroom learning environments. In EdMedia: World conference on educational media and technology, Montreal (Vol. 2015, pp. 760–763).Google Scholar
- Ardito, G., Mosley, P., & Scollins, L. (2014). We, robot: Using robotics to promote collaborative and mathematics learning in a middle school classroom. Middle Grades Research Journal, 9(3), 73.Google Scholar
- Boden, M. (1995). Creativity and unpredictability. Stanford Humanities Review, 4(2), 123–139. Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=212171&CFID=34973622&CFTOKEN=46572978.Google Scholar
- Cavallo, D., Papert, S., & Stager, G. (2004). Climbing to understanding: lessons from an experimental learning environment for adjudicated youth (pp. 113–120). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
- Clayton, C., & Ardito, G. (2009). Teaching for ownership in the middle school science classroom: Towards practical inquiry in an age of accountability. Middle Grades Research Journal, 4(4), 53–79.Google Scholar
- Connor, D. V. (1970). Educational technology in Australia. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1(3), 207–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.1970.tb00534.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Jesus, H. P., de Souza, F. N., Teixeira-Dias, J. J. C., & Watts, M. (2005). Organising the chemistry of question-based learning: A case study. Research in Science & Technological Education, 23(2), 179. Retrieved from http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=W355N700768X864W.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal, LIV(3), 77–80.Google Scholar
- Doolittle, P. E. (2000). Complex constructivism: A theoretical model of complexity and cognition. Retrieved from http://www.tandl.vt.edu/doolittle/research/complex1.html.
- Dron, J. (2016). p-Learning’s unwelcome legacy. TD Tecnologie Didattiche, 24(2). Retrieved from http://www.tdjournal.itd.cnr.it/article/view/891.
- Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2014). Agoraphobia and the modern learner. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, Open for Learning Special Issue, Art. 3. Retrieved from http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/view/2014-03.
- Egberink, A., Gijlers, H., & Saab, N. (2015). The effect of task and collaboration support on learning processes and learning results in a CSCL environment. In 11th international conference on computer supported collaborative learning.Google Scholar
- Evard, M. (1996). Children online: Constructing community standards. In International conference on learning sciences (p. 379). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
- Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2000). Motivation crowding theory: A survey of empirical evidence. Zurich: University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics.Google Scholar
- Gardner, D. P. (1983). A nation at risk. Washington, DC: The National Commission on Excellence in Education, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Hartnett, M., St George, A., & Dron, J. (2011). Being together: Factors that unintentionally undermine motivation in co-located online learning environments. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15(1), 1–16. Retrieved from http://journals.akoaotearoa.ac.nz/index.php/JOFDL/article/view/19.Google Scholar
- Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: A child of complexity theory. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity & Education, 4(1), 111–117. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=url,ip,uid&db=ehh&AN=32917380&site=ehost-live.Google Scholar
- Haughey, M., & Muirhead, B. (2005). Evaluating learning objects for schools. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 8(1). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ850358.
- Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Thinking technology: Toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology, 34(4), 34–37.Google Scholar
- Lee, C. S., Hayes, K. N., Seitz, J., DiStefano, R., & O’Connor, D. (2016). Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science. International Journal of Science Education, 38(2), 1–24.Google Scholar
- Legault, L. (2016). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In T. J. Shackelford & V. Zeigler-Hill (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. New York: Springer International Publishing AG.Google Scholar
- Martin, F. G. (1994). Circuits to control: Learning engineering by designing LEGO robots. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Martinez, S. L., & Stager, G. (2014). Invent to learn: Making, tinkering, and engineering in the classroom. Torrance: Constructing Modern Knowledge Press.Google Scholar
- Mason, R. (1994). Using communications media in open and flexible learning. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
- Mitra, S. (2012). In Kindle (Ed.), Beyond the hole in the wall: Discover the power of self-organized learning. New York: TED.Google Scholar
- Neill, A. S., & Lamb, A. (1995). Summerhill school: A new view of childhood. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Papert, S. (1993). The children’s machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. In Constructionism. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
- Paulsen, M. (1993). The hexagon of cooperative freedom: A distance education theory attuned to computer conferencing. DEOS, 3(2). Retrieved from Retrieved Dec 2007 from http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/21/hexagon.html.
- Pea, R. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In G. Saloman (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 47–87). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Peters, O. (1994). Otto Peters on distance education: The industrialization of teaching and learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2008). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 223–244). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernandez, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., … Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: Programming for all. Communication of the ACM, 52(11), 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1145/1592761.1592779.
- Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31–38.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, B. (2004). The paradox of choice: Why less is more. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
- Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/07/25/moocs-are-really-a-platform/.
- Simpson, J. B. (Ed.). (1988). Simpson’s contemporary quotations: The most notable quotes since 1950, compiled by James B. Simpson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Wiley, D., Bliss, T. J., & McEwen, M. (2014). Open educational resources: A review of the literature. In M. J. Spector, D. M. Merrill, J. Elen, & J. M. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 781–789). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5_63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar