Interdisciplinary Mathematics and Sciences in Schematic Ocean Current Maps in the Seas Around Korea

  • Kyung-Ae ParkEmail author
  • Jae-Jin Park
  • Ji-Eun Park
  • Byoung-Ju Choi
  • Sang-Ho Lee
  • Do-Seong Byun
  • Eun-Il Lee
  • Boon-Soon Kang
  • Hong-Ryeol Shin
  • Sang-Ryong Lee
Living reference work entry


The oceans are the largest reservoir of heat on the Earth as well as the most important regulator of climate change in a rapidly changing warming world. Ocean currents have long played a very important role in the distribution of uneven global energy distribution. Science textbooks are the most effective and efficient means of conveying accurate and up-to-date information about change in the ocean currents to students. Since the oceanic current map represents an extensive summary of a variety of complicated ocean currents, it should contain solid scientific knowledge on the representative ocean currents in the textbooks. This study presents the efforts of how Korean oceanographic community have tried to correct the erratic schematic maps on the ocean currents around the Korean peninsula in recent years. To compare objectively the ocean currents presented in scientific papers and earth science textbooks, all ocean current maps were numerically transformed with the same geographical mapping. A unified schematic map of the currents was produced by integrating all knowledge and insights of oceanographers and experts through various ways such as in-depth discussions, oceanographic conferences, intensive workshops, questionnaires, and so on. The process of this type is strongly related to science, technology, mathematics, engineering, and even artistic concepts. These maps are expected to be very useful for secondary school education, marine experts, the general public, etc. In addition, the methods and strategies proposed in this study are expected to contribute to revise the ocean current maps not only for local seas but also the global ocean.


Oceanic current Schematic current map Science textbook Scientific knowledge Earth science 


  1. Abraham MR, Grzybowski EB, Renner JW, Marek EA (1992) Understanding and misunderstanding of eights graders of five chemistry concepts found in textbook. J Res Sci Teach 29:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball DL, Feiman-Nemser S (1988) Using textbooks and curriculum guides: a dilemma for beginning teachers and teacher educators. Curric Inq 18:401–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowen MM, Emery WJ, Wilkin JL, Tildesley PC, Barton IJ, Knewtson R (2002) Extracting multiyear surface currents from sequential thermal imagery using the maximum cross-correlation technique. J Atmos Ocean Technol 19:1665–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chae DH (2010) Pre-service secondary teachers’ responses on definitions, illustrations, experiments of “adiabatic change” in Earth Science I textbooks. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 31(7):762–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen CS, Beardsley RC, Limeburner R, Kim K (1994) Comparison of winter and summer hydrographic observations in the Yellow and East China seas and adjacent Kuroshio during 1986. Cont Shelf Res 14:909–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chian-Soong B, Yager RE (1993) The inclusion of STS material in the most frequently used secondary science textbooks in the U.S. J Res Sci Teach 30:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Driver R, Guesne E, Tiberghien A (1985) Children’s ideas in science. Open University Press, Philadelphia, 208 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Emery WJ, Thomas AC, Collins MJ, Crawford WR, Mackas DL (1986) An objective method for computing advective surface velocities from sequential infrared satellite images. J Geophys Res 91:12865–12878. Scholar
  9. Ganachaud A, Wunsch C (2000) Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature 408:453–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao J, Lythe MB (1996) The maximum cross-correlation approach to detecting translational motions from sequential remote-sensing images. Comput Geosci 22(5):525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo X, Yanagi T (1998) Three-dimensional structure of tidal current in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. J Oceanogr 54:651–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holloway G, Sou T, Eby M (1995) Dynamics of circulation in the Japan Sea. J Mar Res 53:539–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1996) Climate change 1995: the science of climate change. IPCC, 573 pGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang SK, Lee SR, Lie HJ (1998) Fine grid tidal modeling of the Yellow and East China Seas. Cont Shelf Res 18(7):739–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim K, Kim YB, Park JJ, Nam SH, Park KA, Chang KI (2005) Long-term and real-time monitoring system of the East/Japan Sea. Ocean Sci J 40:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kondo M (1985) Oceanographic investigations of fishing grounds in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea I. characteristics of the mean temperature and salinity distributions measured at 50 m and near the bottom. Bull Seikai Reg Fish Res Lab 62:19–66 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Kook DS (2003) An analysis of 10th grade science textbook as an origin of misconception on greenhouse effect concept. J Korean Assoc Sci Educ 23:592–598 (in Korean)Google Scholar
  18. Lavaniegos BE, Ohman MD (2007) Coherence of long-term variations of zooplankton in two sectors of the California Current System. Prog Oceanogr 75:42–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee KY (2007) Comparative analysis of the function and structure of photographs and illustrations used in high school earth science textbooks of the 6th and 7th national curriculum. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 28:811–824 (in Korean)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee SH, Beardsley RC (1999) Influence of stratification on residual tidal currents in the Yellow Sea. J Geophys Res 104:15679–15701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Z, Gan J (2012) Variability of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea derived from satellite altimetry data. Deep-Sea Res I 59:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lynn RJ, Baumgartner T, Garcia J, Collins CA, Hayward TL, Hyrenbach KD, Mantyla AW, Murphree T, Shankle A, Schwing FB, Sakuma KM, Tegner MJ (1998) The state of the California Current, 1997–1998: transition to El Niño condition. Calif Coop Oceanic Fish Investig Rep 39:25–49Google Scholar
  23. Macdonald AM, Wunsch C (1996) An estimate of global ocean circulation and heat fluxes. Nature 382:436–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin S, Kawase M (1998) The southern flux of sea ice in the Tatarskiy Strait, Japan Sea and the generation of the Liman Current. J Mar Res 56:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGowan JA, Cayan DR, Dorman LM (1998) Climate-Ocean variability and ecosystem response in the Northeast Pacific. Science 281:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Naganuma K (1977) The oceanographic fluctuations in the Japan Sea. Mar Sci (Kaiyo Kagaku) 9:137–141Google Scholar
  27. Park YH (1986) Water characteristics and movements of the Yellow Sea Warm Current in summer. Prog Oceanogr 17:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Park K-A, Park J-E, Seo K-S, Choi B-J, Byun D-S (2011) Analysis of oceanic current maps of the East Sea in the secondary school science textbooks. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 32(7):832–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Park KA, Park JE, Choi BJ, Byun DS, Lee EI (2013) An oceanic current map of the East Sea for science textbooks based on scientific knowledge acquired from oceanic measurements. J Korean Soc Oceanogr 18:234–265 (in Korean)Google Scholar
  30. Park K-A, Park J-E, Choi B-J, Lee S-H, Lee EI, Byun D-S, Kim Y-T (2014) An analysis of oceanic current maps of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in secondary school science textbooks. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 35(6):439–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Park K-A, Park J-E, Lee K-Y, Choi B-J, Lee S-H, Kim Y-T, Lee E-I (2015) An analysis of the change of secondary earth science teachers’ knowledge about the East Sea’s currents through drawing schematic current maps. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 36(3):258–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Park J-E, Park K-A, Ullman DS, Cornillon PC, Park Y-J (2016) Observation of diurnal variations in mesoscale eddy sea-surface currents using GOCI data. Remote Sens Lett 7(12):1131–1140. Scholar
  33. Park K-A, Park J-E, Choi B-J, Lee S-H, Shin H-R, Lee S-R, Byun D-S, Kang B-S, Lee E-I (2017) Schematic maps of ocean currents in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea for science textbooks based on scientific knowledge from oceanic measurements. J Korean Soc Oceanogr 22:151–171Google Scholar
  34. Park K-A, Lee M-S, Park J-E, Ullman D, Cornillon PC, Park Y-J (2018) Surface currents from hourly variations of suspended particulate matter from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager data. Int J Remote Sens 39(6):1929–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pozzer LL, Roth W-M (2003) Toward a pedagogy of photographs in high school biology textbooks. J Res Sci Teach 40:1089–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Riser SC, Warner MJ, Yurasov GI (1999) Circulation and mixing of water masses of Tatar Strait and the northern boundary region of the Japan Sea. J Oceanogr 55:133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sun X-P, Su Y-F (1994) On the variation of Kuroshio in East China Sea. In: Zhou D, Liang YB Zeng C-K (eds) Oceanology of China Seas, vol. 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 49–58 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Tobin K (1990) Research on Science laboratory activities: In pursuit of better questions and answers to improve learning. Sch Sci Math 90:403–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tokmakian R, Strub PT, McClean-Padman J (1990) Evaluation of the maximum cross-correlation method of estimating sea surface velocities from sequential satellite images. J Atmos Ocean Technol 7:852–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Uda M (1934) The results of simultaneous oceanographical investigations in the Japan Sea and its adjacent waters in May and June, 1932. Japan Imp Fishery Exp Stations 5:57–190Google Scholar
  41. Yarichin VG (1980) Steady state of the Japan Sea circulation. In: Pokudov V (ed) Problems of oceanography. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, pp 46–61Google Scholar
  42. Zavialov PO, Grigorieva JV, Moqller OO Jr, Kostianoy AG, Gregoire M (2002) Continuity preserving modified maximum cross-correlation technique. J Geophys Res 107(C10):3160. Scholar
  43. Zhu X-H, Park J-H, Kaneko I (2006) Velocity structure and transports of the Kuroshio and the Ryukyu Current during fall of 2000 estimated by an inverse technique. J Oceanogr 62(4):587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyung-Ae Park
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jae-Jin Park
    • 1
  • Ji-Eun Park
    • 1
  • Byoung-Ju Choi
    • 2
  • Sang-Ho Lee
    • 3
  • Do-Seong Byun
    • 4
  • Eun-Il Lee
    • 4
  • Boon-Soon Kang
    • 4
  • Hong-Ryeol Shin
    • 5
  • Sang-Ryong Lee
    • 6
  1. 1.Seoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea
  3. 3.Kunsan National UniversityGunsanKorea
  4. 4.Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic AgencyBusanKorea
  5. 5.Kongju National UniversityGongjuKorea
  6. 6.Pusan National UniversityBusanKorea

Section editors and affiliations

  • Torsten Lindström
    • 1
  • Bharath Sriraman
    • 2
  1. 1.Linneaeus UniversityVäxjöSweden
  2. 2.Department of Mathematical SciencesThe University of MontanaMissoulaUSA

Personalised recommendations