Human-Made Disasters: Electric Power and Transit Linked Outages
- 69 Downloads
Electric power outages related to transit service continuity are associated with a number of factors that originate in transit and electric power system characteristics, such as the capacity to withstand equipment issues; environmental conditions, including natural hazards, such as extreme weather and climate change impacts on energy systems (U.S. DOE 2013a) and human responses to those conditions; unintentional human actions, such as the accidental, inadvertent disruption of a power line or street salting; and intentional human acts, such as sabotage and cyberattacks (Zimmerman 2012a, Chapter 7; Zimmerman 2017).
The scope of electric power and transit linkages in this entry signifies connections between electric power and rail transit systems primarily to move transit vehicles that provide vital transportation services. Electric power is also used for supporting facilities such as signals, switches, lighting for rail, vehicles, and stations and for cleaning and...
KeywordsElectric power Rail transit Infrastructure interdependencies Power outages Natural hazards Human unintentional and intentional actions
This work was supported by the following grants or cooperative agreements listed below:
The National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement #1444755, the Urban Resilience to Extremes Sustainability Research Network (URExSRN).
“Critical Resilient Interdependent Infrastructure Systems and Processes (CRISP) Type 1: Reductionist and integrative approaches to improve the resiliency of multi-scale interdependent critical infrastructure,” funded by the NSF (#1541164).
“Dynamic Resiliency Modeling and Planning for Interdependent Critical Infrastructures,” funded by Critical Infrastructure Resilience Institute (CIRI), U. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, supported by the US Department of Homeland Security under Grant Award #2015-ST-061-CIRC01.
“Developing Secure Strategies for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles,” from C2SMART, NYU Tandon School of Engineering, US Department of Transportation. US DOT award number 69A3551747124.
Disclaimer: Any opinions, findings, views, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Homeland Security, or the US Department of Transportation.
- Abdallah, T. (2017). Sustainable mass transit. Challenges and opportunities in urban public transportation. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Amtrak. (2018). Amtrak Sustainability Report 2016–2017. Retrieved from https://www.amtrak.com/content/dam/projects/dotcom/english/public/documents/environmental1/2016-2017-Amtrak-Sustainability-Report.pdf
- Blake, R., Jacob, K., Yohe, G., Zimmerman, R., Manley, D., Solecki, W., & Rosenzweig, C. (2019). New York City Panel on Climate Change 2019 Report Chapter 8: Indicators and Monitoring. In: C. Rosenzweig, W. Solecki (Eds.), Advancing Tools and Methods for Flexible Adaptation Pathways and Science Policy Integration: NPCC 2019 Report. Special Issue: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1439, pp. 230–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14014
- Brooks, R. B. (2017). History of the Boston subway: The first subway in America History of Massachusetts (blog). Retrieved from https://historyofmassachusetts.org/boston-first-subway-america/
- Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), & Mott MacDonald. (2017). CTA WESS Summary Report A study on how implementing a Wayside Energy Storage System will impact the CTA Red Line. Retrieved from https://www.transitchicago.com/assets/1/28/CTA_Red_Line_WESS_Study_Summary_Report.pdf
- Coldwell, W. (2013). 150 facts for 150 years of the London tube. The Independent. Retrieved from www.independent.co.uk/life-style/history/150-facts-for-150-years-of-thelondon-tube-8444153.html
- Con Edison. (2017a). Our storm-hardening protection plan. Accessed 2 Feb 2019. https://www.coned.com/en/our-energy-future/our-energy-projects/storm-hardening-enhancement-plan
- Con Edison. (2017b). Statement from Con Edison Re: PSC Order on MTA Plan. Retrieved from https://www.coned.com/en/about-us/media-center/news/20170802/statement-from-con-edison-re-psc-order-mta-plan
- Con Edison. (2019a). How we source our electric power. Retrieved from https://www.coned.com/en/our-energy-future/how-we-source-our-energy/electricity
- Con Edison. (2019b). Company history and statistical information. Retrieved from https://www.coned.com/en/about-us/corporate-facts
- Consolidated Edison Co. of New York and Orange and Rockland Utilities. (2013). Post-Sandy Enhancement Plan. Retrieved from https://www.coned.com/-/media/files/coned/documents/services-outages/post_sandy_enhancement_plan.pdf.
- Davis, S.C., & Boundy, R.G. (2019). Transportation energy data book edition 37. Oak Ridge: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved from https://tedb.ornl.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/TEDB_37-2.pdf
- Flegenheimer, M. (2013). Power failure disrupts Metro North’s New Haven Line; May last days. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/26/nyregion/metro-norths-new- haven-line-suspended-after-power-loss.html
- French, M.J. & Rubinstein, D. (2017). Con Ed takes over work, contracts and costs on MTA electrical repairs. Politico. Retrieved from https://www.politico.com/states/new-york/albany/story/2017/11/21/con-ed-takes-over-work-contracts-and-costs-on-mta-electrical-repairs-118775
- González-Gil, G., Palacin, R., & Batty, P. (2013). Review sustainable urban rail systems: Strategies and technologies for optimal management of regenerative braking energy. Energ Conv Manage 75, 374–388. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.06.039.
- HERE Mobility. (2019). The State of Mobility 2019.Google Scholar
- Horn, C. (2015). 1902 Park avenue tunnel collision —a new Rochelle tragedy—a work in progress! Retrieved from https://sites.rootsweb.com/~nywestch/NewRoc1902/
- Jacob, K., Rosenzweig, C., Horton, R., Major, D. & Gornitz, V. (2008). MTA adaptations to climate change a categorical imperative. MTA. Retrieved from https://new.mta.info/document/10451
- Jacobs, J. M., Culp, M., Cattaneo, L., et al. (2018). Transportation. In D. R. Reidmiller, C. W. Avery, D. R. Easterling, et al. (Eds.), Impacts, risks, and adaptation in the United States: Fourth national climate assessment (Vol. II, pp. 479–511). Washington, DC: U.S. Global Change Research Program.Google Scholar
- Karasz, P. (2019). U.K. seeks answers after biggest power failure in a decade. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/10/world/europe/uk-power-cut.html?searchResultPosition=3
- Kaufman, S., Qing, C., Levenson, N., & Hanson, M. (2012). Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy. New York, NY: New York University Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation. Retrieved from http://wagner.nyu.edu/files/rudincenter/sandytransportation.pdf
- Lothes, S. (2009). The stages of U.S. railroad electrification a brief look at the eras in American railroad electrification. Trains. Retrieved from http://trn.trains.com/railroads/railroad-history/2009/09/the-stages-of-us-railroad-electrification
- Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). (Undated). Energy conservation. Retrieved from https://www.mbta.com/sustainability/energy-conservation
- Miles, S., Gallagher, H., & Huxford, C. (2014). Restoration and impacts from the September 8, 2011, San Diego power outage. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 20(2), 05014002. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miles, S., Jagielo, N., & Gallagher, H. (2015). Hurricane Isaac power outage impacts and restoration. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 22(1).Google Scholar
- MTA. (2014). Press release. Metro north. New Haven line power upgrade continues new transformer installed at Mount Vernon substation. Retrieved from http://www.mta.info/press-release/metro-north/new-haven-line-power-upgrade-continues
- MTA. (2016). MTA climate adaptation task force resiliency report. Retrieved from https://new.mta.info/document/10456
- MTA. (2019a). Annual report to the Governor. Retrieved from http://web.mta.info/mta/compliance/pdf/2018_annual/Annual_Report_Narrative_Updated.pdf
- MTA. (2019b). Adaptation task force resiliency report update on agency-wide climate resiliency projects. Retrieved from https://new.mta.info/document/10461
- MTA. (Undated-a). MTA Facts and figures. New York City Transit and the environment. Retrieved from http://web.mta.info/nyct/facts/ffenvironment.htm
- MTA. (Undated-b). MTA Facts and figures. Subways. Retrieved from http://web.mta.info/nyct/facts/ffsubway.htm
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016a). Pathways to urban sustainability: challenges and opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.17226/23551.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016b). Attribution of extreme weather events in the context of climate change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.17226/21852.
- New York State (NYS) 2100 Commission. (2013). Recommendations to improve the strength and resilience of the Empire State’s infrastructure. Retrieved from https://www.governor.ny.gov/sites/governor.ny.gov/files/archive/assets/documents/NYS2100.pdf
- New York State Department of Public Service (DPS). (2019). 2018 Electric Power Reliability Report. Retrieved from http://www3.dps.ny.gov/W/PSCWeb.nsf/96f0fec0b45a3c6485257688006a701a/d82a200687d96d3985257687006f39ca/$FILE/Electric%20Reliability%202018%20DMM.pdf
- NYS Department of Transportation (DOT). (Undated). Passenger Rail Service in NYS. Retrieved from https://www.dot.ny.gov/divisions/operating/opdm/passenger-rail/passenger-rail-service/history-railroads
- Payne, C. (2002). New York’s forgotten substations. The power behind the subway. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
- Trevisani, P. & Lewis, J.T. (2019). Argentina, Uruguay blacked out by massive power failure trains halted and traffic signals stopped as nations of more than 57 million people try to cope without electricity. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/argentina-uruguay-blacked-out-by-massive-power-failure-11560696223?mod=searchresults&page=1&pos=1
- U.S. Department of Energy. (2013a). US Energy sector vulnerabilities to climate change and extreme weather. Washington, DC: U.S. DOE. Retrieved from https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/07/f2/20130716-Energy%20Sector%20Vulnerabilities%20Report.pdf
- U.S. DOE. (2013b). Comparing the impacts of Northeast Hurricanes on energy infrastructure. Retrieved from http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/Northeast%20Storm%20Comparison_FINAL_041513c.pdf.
- U.S. Department of transportation (DOT) Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2019). National Transportation Statistics 2018. Retrieved from https://www.bts.gov/sites/bts.dot.gov/files/docs/browse-statistical-products-and-data/national-transportation-statistics/223001/ntsentire2018q4.pdf
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. (2020). National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary. Retrieved from https://www.transit.dot.gov/ntd/national-transit-database-ntd-glossary
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database NTD. (2018a). Annual Data Tables (agency information, service data, 2018 data product year). 2018 Metrics. Retrieved from https://www.transit.dot.gov/ntd/ntd-data
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database. (2018b). Fuel and energy.xlsm. Retrieved from https://www.transit.dot.gov/ntd/data-product/2018-fuel-and-energy
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database, Office of Budget and Policy. (2019a). 2018 National Transit Summaries and Trends: Appendix. Retrieved from https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/docs/ntd/data-product/134406/2018-ntst-appendix_0.pdf
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database, Office of Budget and Policy. (2019b). 2018 National Transit Summary and Trends. Retrieved from https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/docs/ntd/data-product/134401/2018-ntst_1.pdf
- Zimmerman, R. (2012a). Transport, the Environment and Security. Making the Connection. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978 1 84980 020 4.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, R. (2012b). Critical infrastructure and interdependency revisited, chapter 20. In D. G. Kamien (Ed.), The McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook (Vol. 2012, 2nd ed., pp. 437–460). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, R. (2014). Planning restoration of vital infrastructure services following hurricane sandy: Lessons learned for energy and transportation. Journal of Extreme Events, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.1142/S2345737614500043. Retrieved from http://www.worldscientific.com/DOI/pdf/10.1142/S2345737614500043.
- Zimmerman, R. (2016). Resilient urban infrastructure for adapting to extreme environmental disruptions, Chapter 32 in The Routledge Handbook of Urbanization and Global Environmental Change. K. C. Seto, W. D. Solecki & C. A. Griffith, (Eds.). New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 488–512. ISBN: 978-0-415-73226-0Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, R. (2017). The cyber and critical infrastructures nexus: Interdependencies, dependencies and their impacts on public services. White Paper, NYU Center for Cybersecurity. Retrieved from http://cyber.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Zimmerman-122717updateEdited-White-Paper-Cyber-and-Critical-Infrastructures.pdf
- Zimmerman, R. (2020forthcoming). Historical and Anticipated Changes in Interconnected and Concentrated Infrastructure and Social Networks in Weather, Climate and Human-Initiated Disruptions, in Urban Infrastructure: Interdisciplinary Perspectives from History and the Social Sciences, edited by J. Soffer, J. Heathcott, and R. Zimmerman. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, R., Zhu, Q., de Leon, F., & Guo, Z. (2017). Conceptual modeling framework to integrate resilient and interdependent infrastructure in extreme weather. Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 23(4) (online) 04017034–1 to 13. http://ascelibrary.org/doi/pdf/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000394.
- Zimmerman, R., Foster, S., González, J. E., Jacob, K., Kunreuther, H., Petkova, E. P., & Tollerson, E. (2019). New York City panel on climate change 2019 report, “chapter 7: Resilience strategies for critical infrastructures and their interdependencies,” in New York City panel on climate change (NPCC), advancing tools and methods for flexible adaptation pathways and science policy integration: NPCC 2019 Report. C. Rosenzweig & W. Solecki, (Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1439, pp. 174–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14010