Stereolithography and Two-Photon Polymerization

Living reference work entry


Stereolithography and two-photon lithography based on photopolymerization, as high-resolution 3D printing techniques, are widely used for fabricating complex 3D models with dimensions ranging from several hundred centimeters to micrometers. In particular, two-photon polymerization and reduction can be employed to fabricate polymeric as well as metallic microstructures with a sub-100 nm resolution, beyond the diffraction limit of light. Over the past three decades, different photocurable materials such as synthetic polymers, nanocomposites, and hydrogels were developed and employed to fabricate prototypes as well as functional 3D components. By combining silicone and polymer molding processes using a 3D-printed master model, the reproduction of complex 3D microstructures consisting of polymers and ceramics is possible. Even movable microparts can be reproduced via a membrane-assisted transfer molding technique. Moreover, the functionalization of 3D-printed polymer micro-/nanostructures is realized by combining postprocesses such as electroless plating and chemical and thermal treatments. Recently, several types of multimaterial stereolithography and two-photon lithography have also been demonstrated, and highly functional 3D structures consisting of multiple materials with varied properties such as color, refractive index, and mechanical strength can be fabricated without an assembly process. Multimaterial 3D micro-/nanoprinting can further miniaturize and integrate microdevices. Therefore, stereolithography and two-photon lithography will have applications in photonics, metamaterials, microelectromechanical systems, lab-on-a-chip, biology, dentistry, and medicine. In this chapter, a brief history, the basic features, and recent progress of stereolithography and two-photon lithography are summarized.


3D printing Stereolithography Direct writing 3D molding Two-photon lithography Photopolymerization Photoreduction Photopolymer Ceramics 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Milan Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT University (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology)MelbourneAustralia

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