Degradation of Pollutants Using Advanced Ecomaterials

  • Ihsan Flayyih Hasan AI-JawhariEmail author
Reference work entry


Different manmade problems in the environment occur during a change in the balance in an ecosystem when different chemical compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), textile dyes, heavy metals, and dioxins are added. These compounds affect the growth and development of microorganisms and plants, and seriously harm the health of animals and humans. Some of these compounds may disrupt the normal function of the central nervous system, cause changes in the blood content, and adversely affect the function of lungs, kidneys, liver, and other organs. The long-term action of chemical compounds may cause the development of cancer, allergy, dystrophy, physical and neurological degenerative processes, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson's. At the same time, fertilizers, pesticides, and sewage from industrial plants contaminate soil and water. Many physicochemical methods of treating chemical compounds of wastewater are available, but these methods are constrained because of their limited versatility, high cost, low efficiency, and interference from another wastewater constituent. These physicochemical methods also produce large quantities of sludge, posing a threat as a secondary pollutant. However, biological methods are available that are eco-friendly and completely mineralize organic pollutants. These methods have a wide range of applications, low running costs, effect complete mineralization of chemical compounds to nontoxic compounds, and are eco-friendly. They are dependent on microorganisms used in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, such as bacteria and fungi, algae, and other organisms present in the environment, and phytoremediation is a technology that should be considered for the remediation of contaminated sites because of its cost effectiveness, aesthetic advantages, and long-term applicability. This technology can be applied to metal pollutants that are amenable to phytostabilization, phytoextraction, phytotransformation, rhizosphere bioremediation, or phytoextraction.


Environment Pollutants Biodegradation Phytoremediation Bacteria Fungi Eco-friendly 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment and Pollution, Marshes Research CenterThiqar UniversityAI-NasiriyahIraq

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