Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

G Protein Alpha 12 and 13

  • Thomas E. MeigsEmail author
  • Alex Lyakhovich
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_586


Historical Background

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are composed of three distinct gene products: an α subunit that binds GTP or GDP, plus β and γ subunits. Positioned at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane, this trimer associates with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) harboring seven transmembrane spans. Extracellular GPCR stimulation causes the intracellular G protein α subunit to release GDP. The vacated nucleotide-binding site is filled by GTP from an abundant cytoplasmic pool, causing the α subunit to dissociate from the βγ dimer and drive signaling through a variety of downstream effector proteins. Intrinsic GTPase activity returns the α subunit to a GDP-bound state, a process accelerated by regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins), restoring the inactive αβγ...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of North Carolina AshevilleAshevilleUSA
  2. 2.Group of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and DiseasesInternational Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital BrnoBrnoCzech Republic