G Protein Alpha 12 and 13
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are composed of three distinct gene products: an α subunit that binds GTP or GDP, plus β and γ subunits. Positioned at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane, this trimer associates with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) harboring seven transmembrane spans. Extracellular GPCR stimulation causes the intracellular G protein α subunit to release GDP. The vacated nucleotide-binding site is filled by GTP from an abundant cytoplasmic pool, causing the α subunit to dissociate from the βγ dimer and drive signaling through a variety of downstream effector proteins. Intrinsic GTPase activity returns the α subunit to a GDP-bound state, a process accelerated by regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins), restoring the inactive αβγ...
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