Reference work entry
CD3 is a complex of three type 1 transmembrane (TM) proteins expressed in T cells and most likely also in some neurons: CD3γ, CD3δ, and CD3ε. CD3ζ ( CD247) is described in a separate chapter due to significant differences compared to CD3γ, CD3δ, and CD3ε. The CD3γ and CD3δ chains are glycoproteins, each of which forms a heterodimer with the nonglycosylated CD3ε chain. These chains associate with TCRαβ and a CD3ζζ dimer to form the αβ T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex in αβ T cells (Figs. 1 and 2). The CD3 chains and CD3ζζ also associate with pTα and TCRβ to form the pre-TCR and with TCRγδ to form the γδTCR in the case of pre-T cells and γδ T cells, respectively. In murine but not human TCRγδs the CD3εδ heterodimer is replaced by a second CD3εγ heterodimer (Siegers et al. 2007). Each of the CD3 subunits possesses an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic tail, which becomes phosphorylated upon antigen...
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