Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Immunity-Related GTPases (IRG)

  • Gregory A. Taylor
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_170

Synonyms

Historical Background

The IRGs are a family of large GTP-binding proteins that play roles in immune and inflammatory processes (Pilla-Moffett et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011). They are closely related to three other families of GTP-binding proteins: the Mx proteins, guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), and very large IFN-inducible GTPases. The IRGs were discovered in the 1990s by scientists who were conducting screens for mouse genes that were upregulated by IFN-γ and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Those IRGs were named and described piecemeal, but later, a standardized nomenclature (Bekpen et al. 2005) placed the IRGs into subfamilies based on amino acid homology within the GTP-binding regions. Most subfamilies contain a canonical GKS sequence within the G1 motif in the GTP-binding region (IRGA, IRGB, IRGC, IRGD, IRGE, and IRGF), while a noncanonical GMS sequence is found only in the IRGM proteins, which is thought to lead to the distinct functional...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Medicine, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and ImmunologyDuke University Medical Center; Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Durham VA Medical CenterDurhamUSA