Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase that induces clot lysis by catalyzing the conversion of clot-bound plasminogen to plasmin. The history of tPA began with the identification in 1947 and successful extraction in 1952 of a plasminogen activator from animal tissues that was named fibrinokinase (Astrup and Stage 1952). In 1957 this activator was found in the brain, lung, heart, uterus, muscles, prostate, adrenal gland, testis, and ovaries, and in 1964 it was already known as tissue activator of plasminogen. The first purified form of human tPA was obtained from uterine tissue in 1979, and soon thereafter it was found to be identical to vascular plasminogen activator and blood plasminogen activator (Rijken et al. 1980; Pennica et al. 1983). These findings led to establish that the plasminogen activator found in blood corresponds to the vascular tPA released into the circulation by endothelial cells. Together,...
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