The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a seven-transmembrane protein that belongs to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The receptor is located on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, and its activation leads to thyroid hormone production and growth and proliferation of thyrocytes.
The primary activator of the TSHR is the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin, although the receptor may also be activated by stimulating antibodies as occurs in autoimmune hyperthyroidism, known as Graves’ disease. The TSHR is expressed in many non-thyroidal tissues and may be involved in the systemic manifestations of thyroid disease, such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema, and metabolic bone disease.
Structurally, the TSHR can...
- Aliyev A, Patel J, Brainard J, Gupta M, Nasr C, Hatipoglu B, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of circulating thyrotropin receptor messenger RNA combined with neck ultrasonography in patients with Bethesda III-V thyroid cytology. Surgery. 2016;159:113–7. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2015.06.063.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Allen MD, Neumann S, Gershengorn MC. Small-molecule thyrotropin receptor agonist activates naturally occurring thyrotropin-insensitive mutants and reveals their distinct cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal persistence. Thyroid. 2011;21:907–12. doi:10.1089/thy.2011.0025.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Latif R, Morshed SA, Zaidi M, Davies TF. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor: impact of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies on multimerization, cleavage, and signaling. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2009;38:319–41. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2009.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nishihara E, Fukata S, Hishinuma A, Amino N, Miyauchi A. Prevalence of thyrotropin receptor germline mutations and clinical courses in 89 hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter and negative anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies. Thyroid. 2014;24:789–95. doi:10.1089/thy.2013.0431.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar