GABA (γ-Aminobutyric Acid)
Reference work entry
For a long time, GABA (Fig. 1) was known only as a product of plant and microbial metabolism. It was first synthesized in 1883, and in 1950 it was realized that GABA is present in the mammalian central nervous system. As an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA was recognized in 1967 in experiments showing that nerve and muscle cells challenged by GABA undergo ion-mediated changes in conductance similar to those found following activation of inhibitory neurons (for review see Dreifuss et al. 1969). In the following years, dictinct roles, as well as biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of GABA were described, and its place of synthesis determined.
- Harada K, Matsuoka H, Fujihara H, Ueta Y, Yanagawa Y, Inoue M. GABA signaling and neuroactive steroids in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10(100). https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00100.
- Löscher W, Frey HH. Transport of GABA at the blood-CSF interface. J Neurochem. 1982;38:1072–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1982.tb05350.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGeer PL, McGeer EG. Amino acid neurotransmitters. In: Siegel G, Agranoff B, Albers RW, Molinoff P, editors. Basic neurochemistry. 4th ed. New York: Raven Press; 1989. p. 311–32.Google Scholar
- Olsen RW, DeLorey TM. GABA synthesis, uptake and release. In Basic neurochemistry, 6th ed. Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. Editors: George J Siegel, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Bernard W Agranoff, MD, R Wayne Albers, PhD, Stephen K Fisher, PhD, and Michael D Uhler, PhD. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1999.Google Scholar
- Olsen RW, Sieghart W. International Union of Pharmacology. LXX. Subtypes of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors: classification on the basis of subunit composition, pharmacology, and function. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(3):243–60. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.108.00505.
- Roth RJ, Cooper JR, Bloom FE. The biochemical basis of neuropharmacology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 106.Google Scholar
© Springer International Publishing AG 2018