Human MCP Chemokine Cluster
Chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines that promote directional cell movement and originally were shown to regulate inflammation. By now the superfamily of chemokines and their receptors consists of 50 chemokines and 19 receptors (Zlotnik et al. 2006). Chemokines are classified into four groups CC, CXC, C, and CX3C, based on the position of the conserved cysteines in the amino-terminal domain. They bind to G-coupled protein receptors, with one ligand usually binding to more than one receptor and with the receptors exhibiting high affinity for more than one ligand (Rollins 1997). The chemokine superfamily is characterized, besides the low molecular mass (8–10 kDa) and the four conserved cysteines, by the ability of its members to bind heparin. The major chemokine clusters are the CC and the CXC, with the first originally identified as chemoattractant for monocytes and the latter for neutrophils. The...
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