Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Toshio WatanabeEmail author
  • Mami Sumiyoshi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101488


Historical Background

The ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARFA1) was first identified as a cellular activity required for cholera toxin to ADP-ribosylate the Gs heterotrimeric G protein and exert its toxic effect (Kahn and Gilman 1986; O’Neal et al. 2005). This ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) activity is shared by several closely related proteins, which were later numbered ARF1–ARF6, although ARF2 (a close relative of ARF1) is present in mice and rats but not in humans (Boman and Kahn 1995). However, the endogenous roles of ARF1–6 do not involve ADP-ribosylation, but rather participation in membrane traffic and organization of the cytoskeleton.

Regulation of ARF1 Activity

ARF1 is a member of the Ras superfamily, which can be divided into five major families: ARF, Rab, Ran, Ras, and Rho (Wennerberg et al. 2005). The members of the ARF family are sometimes called GTPases, but they cannot hydrolyze GTP in the absence of a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceGraduate School of Humanities and SciencesNaraJapan
  2. 2.Department of Cell SignalingInstitute of Biomedical Science, Kansai Medical UniversityHirakataJapan