Ectopic Thyroid Tumors, Mediastinal
Intrathoracic goiter; Intrathoracic thyroid carcinoma; Substernal goiter; Substernal thyroid carcinoma
Tumors of thyroid origin that arise within, extend into, or metastasize to involve the mediastinum.
Approximately 20% of goiters extend into the thorax, representing roughly 10% of mediastinal masses. Rarely, foci of malignancy can arise within mediastinal goiter. Advanced-stage thyroid malignancies can involve the mediastinum and surrounding structures. Metastatic carcinoma of thyroid origin in mediastinal lymph nodes may present as a mass lesion.
Goiter is most common in women of reproductive age. Thyroid malignancy occurs primarily in young and middle-aged adults. The mean age at diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is mid-40s–50s, 50s for follicular carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (unless syndrome associated), and 60s for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
Thyroid goiter is more common in women. Thyroid neoplasms are...
References and Further Reading
- Daraki, V., Koukouraki, S., Velegrakis, G., Mamalaki, E., Haniotis, V. T., Kalikakis, G., Stathaki, M. I., Karkavitsas, N., & Papavasiliou, S. S. (2012). Rare presentation of occult medullary carcinoma of the thyroid as a mediastinal mass. Hormones (Athens, Greece), 11(2), 210–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nar Demirer, A., Ayturk, S., Tutuncu, N. B., Gursoy, A., Pak, Y., & Demirag, N. G. (2009). Unresectable huge sternal and mediastinal metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma; radiotherapy as first-line and palliative therapy. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, 117(4), 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar