Drug Induced Pleural Disease
Drug-induced pleural disease; Drug-induced pleural fibrosis
Drug-induced pleural disease is a relatively uncommon complication compared with drug-induced lung disease. Cardiovascular agents, sclerotherapy agents, and chemotherapeutic agents have primarily been implicated in the development of pleural disease. With drug advancements, the list will likely grow. Drugs may cause pleural pathology alone or accompanying lung disease. Clinical presentation includes a variety of symptoms including asymptomatic pleural effusion, acute pleuritis, and symptomatic pleural thickening. Except for drug-induced lupus pleuritis, the pathogenesis of drug-induced pleural disease remains unknown. Suspected mechanisms include hypersensitivity or allergic reaction, direct toxic effect, increased oxygen free radical production, suppression of the antioxidant defences, and chemical-induced inflammation. In most cases, a detailed history establishing a temporal relationship between drug use and...