Pathology of the Pleura and Mediastinum

2018 Edition
| Editors: Timothy Craig Allen, Saul Suster

Apical Cap Lesions

  • Michael P. SedrakEmail author
Reference work entry


Apical cap fibrosis; Apical scar; Pulmonary apical cap


Apical cap lesion is a localized form of pulmonary fibrosis. Apical cap lesion typically affects the apical pleura of the upper lobes but can also affect lower lobes. The lesion is usually an incidental finding but patients may seldom present with hemoptysis. Higher resolution imaging has allowed for better visualization of this lesion, which may resemble a neoplasm, and prompt a biopsy or resection.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Apical cap lesion is relatively rare.

  • Age

    Apical cap lesion is typically found in patients in the sixth decade of life.

  • Sex

    There is no known gender predilection.

  • Site

    Apical lesion is frequently bilateral and occurs in the apices of upper lobes and less commonly the apices of the lower lung lobes.

  • Treatment

    Excision is curative but unnecessary for this benign condition.

  • Outcome

    Apical cap lesion is uniformly benign.


Apical cap lesions typically have a gray, wedge shape, and...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Butler, C., & Kleinerman, J. (1970). The pulmonary apical cap. The American Journal of Pathology, 60, 205–217.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Yousem, S. A. (2001). Pulmonary apical cap: A distinctive but poorly recognized lesion in pulmonary surgical pathology. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 25(5), 679–683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA